Ancestors of Tim Farr and Descendants of Stephen Farr Sr. of Concord, Massachusetts and Lidlington, Bedfordshire, England


Hugh de AUDLEY Earl of Gloucester [Parents] 1, 2, 3 was born 4 about 1289 in England, United Kingdom. He died 5 on 10 Nov 1347 in Tonbridge, Kent, England, United Kingdom. He was buried in Priory of Tunbridge, Kent, England, United Kingdom. Hugh married Margaret de CLARE on 28 Apr 1317 in Windsor, Berkshire, England, United Kingdom.

HUGH DE AUDLEY, Knt., of Stratton (in Stratton Audley), Oxfordshire, and Gratton, Staffordshire, King's bachelor, Sheriff of Rutland, 2nd son, born about 1289. He married at Windsor, Berkshire 28 April 1317 MARGARET DE CLARE, widow of Peter de Gavaston, Knt., Earl of Cornwall, Lord of the Isle of Wight, Baron of Wa]lingford, Berkshire, Trematon and Launceston, Cornwall, Beckley, Oxfordshire, and Burstwick and Knaresborough, Yorkshire (beheaded 19 June 1312), and 2nd daughter of Gilbert de Clare, Knt., Earl of Gloucester and Hertford, by his 2nd wife, Joan of England, daughter of King Edward I [see MONTAGU 6 for her ancestry]. She was born say 1292-3 (aged variously 18, 20, 21, 22 in 1314). They had one daughter, Margaret. She was co-heiress in 1314 to her brother, Gilbert de Clare, Knt., Earl of Gloucester and Hertford, by which she inherited the Castle, borough, and lordship of Newport, and manors of Wentlloog and Machen, Monmouthshire, the Castle and manor of Tonbridge, Kent, and manors in many other counties, including Chipping Ongar, Essex, Campden and Thornbury, Gloucestersbire, Naseby, Rothwell, and ston, Northamptonshire, Rotherhithe, Surrey, etc. During his father's lifetime, he was summoned to Parliament from 30 Nov. 1317 to 15 May 1321, by writs directed Httgotzi Da.etdelejuniori, whereby he may be held to have become Lord Audley. In Dec. 1318 they surrendered the lordships of Newport, Wentloog, and Machen to Hugh le Despenser, in exchange for 6 manors in England, with other properties. In 1319 Parliament rejected a petition by Hugh and Margaret for restoration of the lands of her late husband, Peter de Gavaston. He was involved with his father in the insurrection of 1321-2. He fought on the side of the Earl of Lancaster at the Battle of Boroughbridge 17 March 1321/2, where he was taken prisoner. His wife, Margaret, was sent to Sempringham Priory, where she was not allowed to go outside the gates. In 1325 he was transferred from Berkhampstead, where he was in prison, to Nottingham Castle, whence he escaped. Following the execution of the Despensers and the deposition of King Edward II, he was summoned to Parliament from 3 Dec. 1326 to 24 August 1336, by writs directed Hugoni de Attclele. In 1331 he was one of the embassy to France which concluded a treaty about Guienne. In 1332 he was about to cross the seas on the King's service. In 1333 he was about to go beyond seas on a pilgrimage. In 1334 he received a papal indult for plenary remission. He was appointed Guardian of the coast of Essex in May 1336. He was in the King's service in Scotland in 1336. He was created Earl of Gloucester 16 March 1336/7. In Nov. 1357 he was appointed one of the Captains of the army against Scotland, and he took part in the siege of Dunbar. He was one of the Marshals of the English host in Flanders in 1339. He was present at the Battle of Sluys in 1340. In 1341 he was beyond seas to make a treaty of peace with the King of France. His wife, Margaret, died 9 April 1342, and was buried at Queenhithe. In July 1342 he was about to set out for Brittany. SIR HUGH DE AUDLEY, Earl of Gloucester, died 10 Nov. 1347, and was buried at Tonbridge Priory, Kent.

Margaret de CLARE [Parents] [scrapbook] 1, 2, 3, 4 was born 5, 6 in 1292 in of Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England, United Kingdom. She died 7, 8, 9 on 9 Apr 1342 in France. Margaret married Hugh de AUDLEY Earl of Gloucester on 28 Apr 1317 in Windsor, Berkshire, England, United Kingdom.

Other marriages:
GAVASTON, Piers de 1st Earl of Cornwall

They had the following children.

  F i
Alice AUDLEY 1 was born after 1317 in of, Stratton, Audley, England, United Kingdom.
  F ii Margaret de AUDLEY was born about 1325. She died on 16 Sep 1348.

Edward I Longshanks PLANTAGENET King Of England [Parents] [scrapbook] 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 was born 8, 9, 10 on 17 Jun 1239 in Westminster Palace, London, Middlesex, England, United Kingdom. He was christened on 21 Jun 1239 in Westminster, Middlesex, England, United Kingdom. He died 11, 12, 13 on 7 Jul 1307 in Burgh-On-The-Sands, Near Carlisle. He was buried on 28 Oct 1307 in Westminster Abbey, Westminster, Middlesex, England, United Kingdom. Edward married 14, 15 Leonor Princess of CASTILE AND LEÓN on 18 Oct 1254 in Abbey of Las Huelgas, Burgos, Castile, Spain.

Other marriages:
FRANCE, Margaret of

Historical Figures Gallery
Bio for Edward I

Edward I was the first King of England to make government accountable to its supporters, and he instituted reforms that created the country's first parliamentary body.

Edward was the oldest son of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence.  When he married Eleanor of Castile, his father gave him authority over the administration of Ireland and Wales, as well as Gascony in France.  He inherited the throne of England when his father died in 1272.

As a young man, Edward distinguished himself in the military.  In an uprising of the nobility sometimes called "The Baron's War," he led the King's army and killed his father's rival, Simon de Montfort. He also played an important part in the eighth crusade.

Edward's monarchy was noteworthy for his efforts to use the rule of law to improve conditions in his country.  He believed that the nobles who paid for the government should have a say in how it was run, and he expanded the Great Council until it actually had parliamentary powers.  He also created the first Statute of Westminster to deal with administrative abuse, issued the Quo Warranto to protect feudal power, and the Statute of Mortmain to stop the unlicensed donation of land to the Catholic Church.

Much of Edward's reign, however, was spent on unsuccessful efforts to enforce his authority over outlying parts of the kingdom.  Unable to negotiate, he had to go to war in order to annex Wales.

His efforts to overcome Scotland were even more complex.  Initially, Alexander III cooperated by turning over Scottish lands in England to Edward. However, Edward's efforts to formally link the two countries were undermined when a proposed marriage of the heirs to the two counties in infancy was undone by the death of the Scottish King's daughter.

When the Scottish throne became vacant, Edward was called on to choose a successor.  Although Robert Bruce was the popular choice, Edward appointed John Balliol who was prepared to take an oath of loyalty to England.

At this time, Edward was also having difficulty controlling his French territories and was becoming increasingly unpopular at home.  To deal with his domestic problems, he called the first assembly of the three estates, which came to be known as the Model Parliament.  His difficulties in France were reduced by his second marriage, for which he chose the French King's sister.

This freed him to focus on the further problems that had erupted in Scotland.  Edward's first act was to take the stone that was used in Scottish coronations and bring it to England.  When the Scotch took up arms, Edward led his troops north and defeated them. Eventually, their leader, William Wallace, was captured and put to death.

In defiance, Robert Bruce took over the leadership of his country and arranged to have himself crowned King Robert I.  When Edward marched north to fight Robert, he was brought down by his own old age and ill health.  He died near Carlisle in Scotland.

Major Events

1254 - Married Eleanor of Castile.
1265 - Defeated Simon de Montfort.
1270 - Eighth Crusade.
1274 - Crowned King of England.
1275 - First Statute of Westminster.
1282 - Conquest of Wales.
1290 - Death of Eleanor.
1295 - Model Parliament.
1296 - Removed Scottish coronation stone to England. Married Princess Margaret of France.
1298 - British victory at Falkirk.
1305 - Executed William Wallace.
1306 - Crowned Robert Bruce.

Did you know?

Edward's first wife, Eleanor, went with him on the eighth crusade.

Copyright © 1994 Bureau of Electronic Publishing

EDWARD I (r. 1272-1307)

Born in June 1239 at Westminster, Edward was named by his father Henry III after the last Anglo Saxon king (and his father's favourite saint), Edward the Confessor. Edward's parents were renowned for their patronage of the arts (his mother, Eleanor of Provence, encouraged Henry III to spend money on the arts, which included the rebuilding of Westminster Abbey and a still-extant magnificent shrine to house the body of Edward the Confessor), and Edward received a disciplined education - reading and writing in Latin and French, with training in the arts, sciences and music.

In 1254, Edward travelled to Spain for an arranged marriage at the age of 15 to 9-year-old Eleanor of Castile. Just before Edward's marriage, Henry III gave him the duchy of Gascony, one of the few remnants of the once vast French possessions of the English Angevin kings. Gascony was part of a package which included parts of Ireland, the Channel Islands and the King's lands in Wales to provide an income for Edward. Edward then spent a year in Gascony, studying its administration.

Edward spent his young adulthood learning harsh lessons from Henry III's failures as a king, culminating in a civil war in which he fought to defend his father. Henry's ill-judged and expensive intervention in Sicilian affairs (lured by the Pope's offer of the Sicilian crown to Henry's younger son) failed, and aroused the anger of powerful barons including Henry's brother-in-law Simon de Montfort. Bankrupt and threatened with excommunication, Henry was forced to agree to the Provisions of Oxford in 1258, under which his debts were paid in exchange for substantial reforms; a Great Council of 24, partly nominated by the barons, assumed the functions of the King's Council.

Henry repudiated the Provisions in 1261 and sought the help of the French king Louis IX (later known as St Louis for his piety and other qualities). This was the only time Edward was tempted to side with his charismatic and politically ruthless godfather Simon de Montfort - he supported holding a Parliament in his father's absence.

However, by the time Louis IX decided to side with Henry in the dispute and civil war broke out in England in 1263, Edward had returned to his father's side and became de Montfort's greatest enemy. After winning the battle of Lewes in 1264 (after which Edward became a hostage to ensure his father abided by the terms of the peace), de Montfort summoned the Great Parliament in 1265 - this was the first time cities and burghs sent representatives to the parliament. (Historians differ as to whether de Montfort was an enlightened liberal reformer or an unscrupulous opportunist using any means to advance himself.)

In May 1265, Edward escaped from tight supervision whilst hunting. On 4 August, Edward and his allies outmanoeuvred de Montfort in a savage battle at Evesham; de Montfort predicted his own defeat and death 'let us commend our souls to God, because our bodies are theirs ... they are approaching wisely, they learned this from me.' With the ending of the civil war, Edward worked hard at social and political reconciliation between his father and the rebels, and by 1267 the realm had been pacified.

In April 1270 Parliament agreed an unprecedented levy of one-twentieth of every citizen's goods and possessions to finance Edward's Crusade to the Holy Lands. Edward left England in August 1270 to join the highly respected French king Louis IX on Crusade. At a time when popes were using the crusading ideal to further their own political ends in Italy and elsewhere, Edward and King Louis were the last crusaders in the medieval tradition of aiming to recover the Holy Lands. Louis died of the plague in Tunis before Edward's arrival, and the French forces were bought off from pursuing their campaign. Edward decided to continue regardless: 'by the blood of God, though all my fellow soldiers and countrymen desert me, I will enter Acre ... and I will keep my word and my oath to the death'.

Edward arrived in Acre in May 1271 with 1,000 knights; his crusade was to prove an anticlimax. Edward's small force limited him to the relief of Acre and a handful of raids, and divisions amongst the international force of Christian Crusaders led to Edward's compromise truce with the Baibars. In June 1272, Edward survived a murder attempt by an Assassin (an order of Shi'ite Muslims) and left for Sicily later in the year. He was never to return on crusade.

Meanwhile, Henry III died on 16 November 1272. Edward succeeded to the throne without opposition - given his track record in military ability and his proven determination to give peace to the country, enhanced by his magnified exploits on crusade. In Edward's absence, a proclamation in his name delcared that he had succeeded by hereditary right, and the barons swore allegeiance to him. Edward finally arrived in London in August 1274 and was crowned at Westminster Abbey. Aged 35, he was a veteran warrior ('the best lance in all the world', according to contemporaries), a leader with energy and vision, and with a formidable temper.

Edward was determined to enforce English kings' claims to primacy in the British Isles. The first part of his reign was dominated by Wales. At that time, Wales consisted of a number of disunited small Welsh princedoms; the South Welsh princes were in uneasy alliance with the Marcher lords (feudal earldoms and baronies set up by the Norman kings to protect the English border against Welsh raids) against the Northern Welsh based in the rocky wilds of Gwynedd, under the strong leadership of Llywelyn ap Gruffyd, Prince of Gwynedd. In 1247, under the Treaty of Woodstock, Llywelyn had agreed that he held North Wales in fee to the English king. By 1272, Llywelyn had taken advantage of the English civil wars to consolidate his position, and the Peace of Montgomery (1267) had confirmed his title as Prince of Wales and recognised his conquests.

However, Llywelyn maintained that the rights of his principality were 'entirely separate from the rights' of England; he did not attend Edward's coronation and refused to do homage. Finally, in 1277 Edward decided to fight Llywelyn 'as a rebel and disturber of the peace', and quickly defeated him. War broke out again in 1282 when Llywelyn joined his brother David in rebellion. Edward's determination, military experience and skilful use of ships brought from England for deployment along the North Welsh coast, drove Llywelyn back into the mountains of North Wales. The death of Llywelyn in a chance battle in 1282 and the subsequent execution of his brother David effectively ended attempts at Welsh independence.

Under the Statute of Wales of 1284, Wales was brought into the English legal framework and the shire system was extended. In the same year, a son was born in Wales to Edward and Queen Eleanor (also named Edward, this future king was proclaimed the first English Prince of Wales in 1301). The Welsh campaign had produced one of the largest armies ever assembled by an English king - some 15,000 infantry (including 9,000 Welsh and a Gascon contingent); the army was a formidable combination of heavy Anglo-Norman cavalry and Welsh archers, whose longbow skills laid the foundations of later military victories in France such as that at Agincourt. As symbols of his military strength and political authority, Edward spent some £80,000 on a network of castles and lesser strongholds in North Wales, employing a work-force of up to 3, 500 men drawn from all over England. (Some castles, such as Conway and Caernarvon, remain in their ruined layouts today, as examples of fortresses integrated with fortified towns.)

Edward's campaign in Wales was based on his determination to ensure peace and extend royal authority, and it had broad support in England. Edward saw the need to widen support among lesser landowners and the merchants and traders of the towns. The campaigns in Wales, France and Scotland left Edward deeply in debt, and the taxation required to meet those debts meant enrolling national support for his policies.


To raise money, Edward summoned Parliament - up to 1286 he summoned Parliaments twice a year. (The word 'Parliament' came from the 'parley' or talks which the King had with larger groups of advisers.) In 1295, when money was needed to wage war against Philip of France (who had confiscated the duchy of Gascony), Edward summoned the most comprehensive assembly ever summoned in England. This became known as the Model Parliament, for it represented various estates: barons, clergy, and knights and townspeople. By the end of Edward's reign, Parliament usually contained representatives of all these estates.

Edward used his royal authority to establish the rights of the Crown at the expense of traditional feudal privileges, to promote the uniform administration of justice, to raise income to meet the costs of war and government, and to codify the legal system. In doing so, his methods emphasised the role of Parliament and the common law. With the able help of his Chancellor, Robert Burnell, Bishop of Bath and Wells, Edward introduced much new legislation. He began by commissioning a thorough survey of local government (with the results entered into documents known as the Hundred Rolls), which not only defined royal rights and possessions but also revealed administrative abuses.

The First Statute of Westminster (1275) codified 51 existing laws - many originating from Magna Carta - covering areas ranging from extortion by royal officers, lawyers and bailiffs, methods of procedure in civil and criminal cases to freedom of elections. Edward's first Parliament also enacted legislation on wool, England's most important export at the time. At the request of the merchants, Edward was given a customs grant on wool and hides which amounted to nearly £10,000 a year. Edward also obtained income from the licence fees imposed by the Statute of Mortmain (1279), under which gifts of land to the Church (often made to evade death duties) had to have a royal licence.

The Statutes of Gloucester (1278) and Quo Warranto (1290) attempted to define and regulate feudal jurisdictions, which were an obstacle to royal authority and to a uniform system of justice for all; the Statute of Winchester (1285) codified the policing system for preserving public order. Other statutes had a long-term effect on land law and on the feudal framework in England. The Second Statute of Westminster (1285) restricted the alienation of land and kept entailed estates within families: tenants were only tenants for life and not able to sell the property to others. The Third Statute of Westminster or Quia Emptores (1290) stopped subinfeudation (in which tenants of land belonging to the King or to barons subcontracted their properties and related feudal services).

Edward's assertion that the King of Scotland owed feudal allegiance to him, and the embittered Anglo-Scottish relations leading to war which followed, were to overshadow the rest of Edward's reign in what was to become known as the 'Great Cause'. Under a treaty of 1174, William the Lion of Scotland had become the vassal to Henry II, but in 1189 Richard I had absolved William from his allegiance. Intermarriage between the English and Scottish royal houses promoted peace between the two countries until the premature death of Alexander III in 1286. In 1290, his granddaughter and heiress, Margaret the 'Maid of Norway' (daughter of the King of Norway, she was pledged to be married to Edward's then only surviving son, Edward of Caernarvon), also died. For Edward, this dynastic blow was made worse by the death in the same year of his much-loved wife Eleanor (her body was ceremonially carried from Lincoln to Westminster for burial, and a memorial cross erected at every one of the twelve resting places, including what became known as Charing Cross in London).

In the absence of an obvious heir to the Scottish throne, the disunited Scottish magnates invited Edward to determine the dispute. In order to gain acceptance of his authority in reaching a verdict, Edward sought and obtained recognition from the rival claimants that he had the 'sovereign lordship of Scotland and the right to determine our several pretensions'. In November 1292, Edward and his 104 assessors gave the whole kingdom to John Balliol or Baliol as the claimant closest to the royal line; Balliol duly swore loyalty to Edward and was crowned at Scone.

John Balliol's position proved difficult. Edward insisted that Scotland was not independent and he, as sovereign lord, had the right to hear in England appeals against Balliol's judgements in Scotland. In 1294, Balliol lost authority amongst Scottish magnates by going to Westminster after receiving a summons from Edward; the magnates decided to seek allies in France and concluded the 'Auld Alliance' with France (then at war with England over the duchy of Gascony) - an alliance which was to influence Scottish history for the next 300 years. In March 1296, having failed to negotiate a settlement, the English led by Edward sacked the city of Berwick near the River Tweed. Balliol formally renounced his homage to Edward in April 1296, speaking of 'grievous and intolerable injuries ... for instance by summoning us outside our realm ... as your own whim dictated ... and so ... we renounce the fealty and homage which we have done to you'. Pausing to design and start the rebuilding of Berwick as the financial capital of the country, Edward's forces overran remaining Scottish resistance. Scots leaders were taken hostage, and Edinburgh Castle, amongst others, was seized. Balliol surrendered his realm and spent the rest of his life in exile in England and Normandy.

Having humiliated Balliol, Edward's insensitive policies in Scotland continued: he appointed a trio of Englishmen to run the country. Edward had the Stone of Scone - also known as the Stone of Destiny - on which Scottish sovereigns had been crowned removed to London and subsequently placed in the Coronation Chair in Westminster Abbey (where it remained until it was returned to Scotland in 1996). Edward never built stone castles on strategic sites in Scotland, as he had done so successfully in Wales - possibly because he did not have the funds for another ambitious castle-building programme.

By 1297, Edward was facing the biggest crisis in his reign, and his commitments outweighed his resources. Chronic debts were being incurred by wars against France, in Flanders, Gascony and Wales as well as Scotland; the clergy were refusing to pay their share of the costs, with the Archbishop of Canterbury threatening excommunication; Parliament was reluctant to contribute to Edward's expensive and unsuccessful military policies; the Earls of Hereford and Norfolk refused to serve in Gascony, and the barons presented a formal statement of their grievances. In the end, Edward was forced to reconfirm the Charters (including Magna Carta) to obtain the money he required; the Archbishop was eventually suspended in 1306 by the new Gascon Pope Clement V; a truce was declared with France in 1297, followed by a peace treaty in 1303 under which the French king restored the duchy of Gascony to Edward.

In Scotland, Edward pursued a series of campaigns from 1298 onwards. William Wallace had risen in Balliol's name and recovered most of Scotland, before being defeated by Edward at the battle of Falkirk in 1298. (Wallace escaped, only to be captured in 1305, allegedly by the treachery of a fellow Scot and taken to London, where he was executed.) In 1304, Edward summoned a full Parliament (which elected Scottish representatives also attended), in which arrangements for the settlement of Scotland were made. The new government in Scotland featured a Council, which included Robert the Bruce. Bruce unexpectedly rebelled in 1306 by killing a fellow counsellor and was crowned king of Scotland at Scone. Despite his failing health, Edward was carried north to pursue another campaign, but he died en route at Burgh on Sands on 7 July 1307 aged 68.

According to chroniclers, Edward requested that his bones should be carried on Scottish campaigns and that his heart be taken to the Holy Land. However, Edward was buried at Westminster Abbey in a plain black marble tomb, which in later years was painted with the words Scottorum malleus (Hammer of the Scots) and Pactum serva (Keep troth). Throughout the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, the Exchequer paid to keep candles burning 'round the body of the Lord Edward, formerly King of England, of famous memory'.

Leonor Princess of CASTILE AND LEÓN [Parents] [scrapbook] 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 was born 7 about 1242 in Castile, Spain. She died 8, 9 on 29 Nov 1290 in Herdeby, Near Grantham, Lincolnshire, England, United Kingdom. She was buried on 16 Dec 1290 in Westminster Abbey, Westminster, Middlesex, England, United Kingdom. Leonor married 10, 11 Edward I Longshanks PLANTAGENET King Of England on 18 Oct 1254 in Abbey of Las Huelgas, Burgos, Castile, Spain.

Daughter of Ferdinand III.

They had the following children.

  F i
Eleanor Princess of ENGLAND 1, 2 was born in 1264 in Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England, United Kingdom. She died 3 in 1298. She was buried in Westminster Abbey, Westminster, Middlesex, England, United Kingdom.

ELEANOR (or ÉLÉONORE) OF ENGLANDxe “England, Eleanor of & Henri III, Count of Bar”xe “Bar, Henri III, Count of & Eleanor of England”, born at Windsor Castle, Berkshire about 18 June 1269.  She was contracted to marry ALFONSO III el Liberal, King of Aragónxe “Aragón, Alfonso III, King of”, Count of Barcelonaxe “Barcelona”, son and heir of Pedro III el Grande, King of Aragónxe “Aragón”, Count of Barcelonaxe “Barcelona”, King of Sicilyxe “Sicily”, by Constanza, daughter of Manfred, King of Sicilyxe “Sicily”.  Alfonso III, King of Aragónxe “Aragón”, died prior to marriage at Barcelona 18 June 1291.  She married at Bristol 20 Sept. 1293 HENRI III, Count of Bar, seigneur of Torcy in Brie, son and heir of Theobald II, Count of Barxe “Bar”, by his 2nd wife, Jeanne, daughter of Jean, seigneur of Toucyxe “Toucy”.  He was born in 1259.  They had one son, Édouard I [Count of Barxe “Bar”, seigneur of la Puisaye], and one daughter, Joan (wife of John de Warennexe “Warenne”, Knt., 8th Earl of Surreyxe “Surrey” [see WARENNE 6]).  His wife, Eleanor, died at Ghent 29 August 1298.  HENRI III, Count of Barxe “Bar”, died at Naples Sept. 1302.
  F ii
Joan Princess of ENGLAND 1, 2 was born in 1265 in Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England, United Kingdom. She was buried on 7 Sep 1265 in Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England, United Kingdom.
  M iii
John Prince of ENGLAND 1, 2 was born on 10 Jul 1266 in Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England, United Kingdom. He died on 1 Aug 1272.

JOHN OF ENGLAND XE “England, John of” , born Windsor Castle 13/14 July 1266, died at Wallingford, Berkshire 3 August 1271, while in care of his uncle, Richard, Earl of Cornwallxe “Cornwall, Richard, Earl of”, his father being on crusade; buried at Westminster Abbey.
  M iv
Henry Prince of ENGLAND 1, 2 was born in 1267/1268 in Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England, United Kingdom. He died about 14 Oct 1274. He was buried on 20 Oct 1274.

Died young.
  F v
Juliana Or Katherine Princess of ENGLAND 1 was born in 1271 in `Akko, Hadafon, Israel. She died in 1271 in `Akko, Hadafon, Israel.
  F vi Joan de Acre PLANTAGENET was born in 1272. She died on 23 Apr 1307.
  M vii
Alphonso Prince of ENGLAND 1, 2 was born 3 on 24 Nov 1273. He died 4 on 19 Aug 1284.





Earl of Chester
  F viii
Isabel Princess of ENGLAND 1 was born about 1274 in of, Windsor Castle, Berkshire, England, United Kingdom.
  F ix
Margaret Princess of ENGLAND 1, 2, 3 was born on 11 Sep 1275 in Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England, United Kingdom. She died in 1318.

MARGARET OF ENGLANDxe “England, Margaret of & John II, Duke of Lorraine, Brabant, etc.”xe “Lorraine, John II, Duke of & Margaret of England”, born 15 March 1275.  She married at Westminster Abbey 9 July 1290 JOHN (or JEAN) II le Pacifique, Duke of Lorrainexe “Lorraine”, Brabantxe “Brabant”, and Limburgxe “Limburg”, son and heir of John (or Jean) I le Victorieux, Duke of Lorrainexe “Lorraine”, Brabantxe “Brabant”, and Limburgxe “Limburg”, by 2nd wife, Marguerite, daughter of Guy (or Gui) de Dampierrexe “Dampierre”, Count of Flandersxe “Flanders”, Marquis of Namurxe “Namur”.  He was born 27 Sept. 1275.  They had one son, John (or Jean) (III) [Duke of Lorrainexe “Lorraine”, Brabantxe “Brabant”, and Limburgxe “Limburg”].  JOHN II, Duke of Lorrainexe “Lorraine”, Brabantxe “Brabant”, and Limburgxe “Limburg”, died at Tervueren 27 Oct. 1312.  His widow, Margaret, was living 11 March 1333.  They were buried in the church of Ste. Gudule, Brussels.
  F x
Berengaria Princess of ENGLAND 1, 2 was born in 1276 in Kennington, Berkshire, England, United Kingdom. She died in BET 1277 AND 1279.
  F xi
Mary Princess of ENGLAND 1, 2 was born on 11 Mar 1278 in Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England, United Kingdom. She died in 1332.

MARY OF ENGLANDxe “England, Mary of”, born at Woodstock 11 (or 12) March 1279, veiled as a nun at Amesbury in 1291, died 29 May 1332, buried in the Benedictine convent at Amesbury.

DEATH: Died unmarried.
  F xii
Alice Princess of ENGLAND 1 was born on 12 Mar 1279 in Palace, Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England, United Kingdom. She died in 1291.

DEATH: Died unmarried.
  F xiii
Elizabeth Princess of ENGLAND 1, 2 was born 3 on 7 Aug 1282 in Rhuddlan Castle, Flintshire, Wales, United Kingdom. She died 4 on 5 May 1316 in Quendon, Essex, England, United Kingdom. She was buried on 23 May 1316 in Walden Abbey, Hertfordshire, England, United Kingdom.

Married 1st to John, Count of Holland and Zealand, Lord of Friesland. 2ndly to Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford and Essex.
  M xiv
Edward II King of ENGLAND [scrapbook] 1, 2, 3 was born on 25 Apr 1284 in Caernarvon Castle, Caernarvon, Caernarvonshire, Wales, United Kingdom. He died on 21 Sep 1327 in Berkeley Castle, Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England, United Kingdom. He was buried on 20 Dec 1327 in Cathedral, Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England, United Kingdom.

EDWARD II (r. 1307-1327)

Edward II had few of the qualities that made a successful medieval king. Edward surrounded himself with favourites (the best known being a Gascon, Piers Gaveston), and the barons, feeling excluded from power, rebelled. Throughout his reign, different baronial groups struggled to gain power and control the King. The nobles' ordinances of 1311, which attempted to limit royal control of finance and appointments, were counteracted by Edward. Large debts (many inherited) and the Scots' victory at Bannockburn by Robert the Bruce in 1314 made Edward more unpopular.

Edward's victory in a civil war (1321-2) and such measures as the 1326 ordinance (a protectionist measure which set up compulsory markets or staples in 14 English, Welsh and Irish towns for the wool trade) did not lead to any compromise between the King and the nobles. Finally, in 1326, Edward's wife, Isabella of France, led an invasion against her husband. In 1327 Edward was made to renounce the throne in favour of his son Edward (the first time that an anointed king of England had been dethroned since Ethelred in 1013). Edward II was later murdered at Berkeley Castle.


Do you remember the prince in the film Braveheart who was gay? Well, he went on to become Edward II of England. He was born in 1284 in Caernarfon, Wales, son of Edward I, otherwise known as Edward Longshanks, and Eleanor of Castille. As Edward Longshanks had murdered the last Welsh Prince of Wales, Llywelyn ap Gruffydd, the baby Edward was made the new Prince of Wales. He was also the Earl of Hereford and Duke of Lancaster.

Now, Edward Longshanks was a bit of a nasty man, even by English Royalty standards, and this might have had something to do with the way his son turned out. Edward I was tough and warrior-like, while Edward II was the complete opposite. Edward II was betrothed at a very early age to the six-year-old heiress to the Scottish throne, but she died in a shipwreck on the way to the wedding. Having failed to unite England and Scotland through marriage, Edward I did it by force: which is where the story of Braveheart really starts.

Eventually Edward II was married at the age of 24 to Isabella of France, but even on his wedding night he preferred to sleep on the couch of his homosexual favourite, Piers Gaveston. Gaveston was exiled and eventually murdered - there's no proof that Longshanks ever threw him out of the window as portrayed in the film - and Isabella went on to bear two sons and two daughters. Again there is no historical proof that she ever met William Wallace, let alone slept with him.

Edward II was a very weak king who tended to rule by resorting to executing anyone who tried to stand against him. He wasted a lot of money on his homosexual lovers and was very unpopular. As a soldier, he failed to stop Robert The Bruce from regaining power in Scotland and was defeated at the battle of Bannockburn in 1314, ensuring Scottish independence until the Act of Union in 1707.

In 1324, war broke out with France1, and Isabella and their child Edward2 were sent to France to negotiate peace with her brother, the King. Instead, she met up with Roger Mortimer, one of Edward's expelled Barons, and they began an open affair. Isabella and Roger managed to raise an army and invaded England in 1326, capturing and imprisoning Edward in Bristol Castle.

The people of Bristol wouldn't put up with Edward, so he was moved to Berkeley Castle3, a small castle in Gloucestershire, England, under cover of darkness in April 1327.

Many attempts were made to kill him without violence. At Berkeley he was thrown into a waste pit and forced to eat rotten food and drink foul water. Dead animals were even thrown into the pit, but he still did not die.

In September 1327, a Knight named Gurney joined Lord Maltravers as gaoler. They inserted a straight cow horn with the point removed into Edward's anus, then a red hot iron was pushed through the cow horn and into the body, burning out his entrails. This killed him while leaving no marks on his body, making it appear as if he had died of natural causes. The crime might have gone unnoticed if they had not murdered him in an outbuilding: as it was, his screams could be heard all over the village. When the crime was investigated, Thomas Berkeley produced an alibi that he was ill and staying five miles away at Wotton Under Edge. He was acquitted. In the 1600s, a historian found papers revealing that Thomas Berkeley did not attend Bradley Court, Wotton Under Edge until a week after Edward's murder. No one was ever found guilty, mainly due to Thomas Berkeley concealing Gurney and exiling him to Beverston.

Sir Richard Baker wrote about Edward I in A Chronicle to the Kings of England:

'His great unfortunateness was in his greatest blessing: for of four sons which he had by his Queen Eleanor, three of them died in his own lifetime, who were worthy to have outlived him; and the fourth outlived him, who was worthy never to have been born.'

In his dying moments, Edward II probably wished he had never been born too.


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1 As it so frequently did in those days, before the European Union made it possible for the countries to annoy one another almost as much without anyone having to die for one's country.
2 The Plantagenets are not famed for their originality in naming their children.
3 It is in a sleepy village and is still owned by the Berkeley family.
  F xv
Beatrice Princess of ENGLAND 1 was born in 1286 in Toulouse, Haute-Garonne, France.
  F xvi
Blanche Princess of ENGLAND 1 was born in 1290 in Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England, United Kingdom.

Henry III PLANTAGENET King of England [Parents] [scrapbook] 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 was born 7, 8, 9 on 1 Oct 1207 in Winchester Castle, Hampshire, England, United Kingdom. He died 10 on 15 Jun 1272 in Westminster Abbey, London, England, United Kingdom. He was buried on 20 Nov 1272 in Westminster Abbey, Westminster, Middlesex, England, United Kingdom. Henry married 11, 12, 13, 14 Elbeonore (Lbeonor) Countess of PROVENCE on 14 Jan 1236 in Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, England, United Kingdom.

The reign of Henry III, King of England from 1216 to 1272, featured the rise of English nationalism and the development of a strong baronial claim in governmental participation.  Henry was born in Winchester on October 1, 1207, the eldest son of King John and Isabella of Angouleme.  When his father died in 1216, Henry inherited the throne and was entrusted to William Marshal, Earl of Pembroke, who promptly knighted the young sovereign.

At the time of Henry III's reign, a large portion of southwest England and other areas belonged to the French Prince, Louis (later Louis VIII) who justified his claim through his wife Blanche of Castile. Unfortunately for Henry, Louis had many English Barons on his side. To remedy the situation, Pembroke set up a sharing power with the Papal Legate and Peter des Roches, Bishop of Winchester, who was also the King's tutor.  They brought the civil war to an end in November of 1216 and revised the Magna Carta Charter which Henry's father had signed and which specifically outlined the duties and privileges of the Barons and King, breaking up the original division.

Henry III was formally crowned in 1220, though he was given limited power until 1223 when the Charter was confirmed.  As King, he repeatedly tried to recover lands in France, and though his army was decisively defeated in 1242, Henry continued intermittent war with France for the next seventeen years.

In 1255, King Henry III accepted the crown of Sicily, which would have been a costly venture.  The Barons forced its abandonment.  By 1264, discontent among the Barons and the people soared, and they captured Henry along with his eldest son Edward.  In 1265, Edward escaped and managed to defeat his enemies. Edward then became the practicing ruler of England until Henry III's death on November 16, 1272.    Despite Henry's evident failings, the reformers themselves failed to overthrow his principle that the King had the right to choose his own ministers and advisors.

Major Events

1216 - Became unofficial King of England; civil war ended.
1220 - Officially coronated.
1223 - Magna Carta reinstated.
1242 - Defeated by the French.
1255 - Accepted the crown of Sicily.
1264 - Captured by rebels and reformers.
1265 - Edward became the real ruler of England.
1272 - Death of Henry III.

Did you know?

Although Henry III was viewed as a weak and extravagant king whose reign was saved by smarter men than himself, his devotion to architecture and the arts suggests more intellect, though of a nonpolitical variety, than his opponents usually credit him with having.

Copyright © 1994 Bureau of Electronic Publishing

HENRY III (r. 1216-1272)

Henry III, King John's son, was only nine when he became King. By 1227, when he assumed power from his regent, order had been restored, based on his acceptance of Magna Carta. However, the King's failed campaigns in France (1230 and 1242), his choice of friends and advisers, together with the cost of his scheme to make one of his younger sons King of Sicily and help the Pope against the Holy Roman Emperor, led to further disputes with the barons and united opposition in Church and State. Although Henry was extravagant and his tax demands were resented, the King's accounts show a list of many charitable donations and payments for building works (including the rebuilding of Westminster Abbey which began in 1245).

The Provisions of Oxford (1258) and the Provisions of Westminster (1259) were attempts by the nobles to define common law in the spirit of Magna Carta, control appointments and set up an aristocratic council. Henry tried to defeat them by obtaining papal absolution from his oaths, and enlisting King Louis XI's help. Henry renounced the Provisions in 1262 and war broke out. The barons, under their leader, Simon de Montfort, were initially successful and even captured Henry. However, Henry escaped, joined forces with the lords of the Marches (on the Welsh border), and Henry finally defeated and killed de Montfort at the Battle of Evesham in 1265. Royal authority was restored by the Statute of Marlborough (1267), in which the King also promised to uphold Magna Carta and some of the Provisions of Westminster.

Elbeonore (Lbeonor) Countess of PROVENCE [Parents] 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 was born 6 in 1223 in Aix-En-Provence, Provence-Alpes-Côte D'Azur, France. She died 7, 8, 9, 10 on 24 Jun 1291 in Amesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England, United Kingdom. She was buried on 11 Sep 1291 in Monastery, Amesbury, Wiltshire, England, United Kingdom. Elbeonore married 11, 12, 13, 14 Henry III PLANTAGENET King of England on 14 Jan 1236 in Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, England, United Kingdom.

ELEANOR OF PROVENCE, 2nd daughter and co-heiress of Raymond Bérenger V, Count and Marquis of Provencexe “Provence, Raymond Bérenger V, Count of”, Count of Forcalquierxe “Forcalquier”, by Béatrice, daughter of Tomasso I, Count of Savoyxe “Savoy”.

They had the following children.

  M i Edward I Longshanks PLANTAGENET King Of England was born on 17 Jun 1239. He died on 7 Jul 1307.
  F ii
Margaret Queen of SCOTLAND 1, 2 was born on 5 Oct 1240 in Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England, United Kingdom. She died on 27 Feb 1274/1275 in Cupar Castle, Cuper, Fifeshire, Scotland, United Kingdom. She was buried in Dunfermline, Fifeshire, Scotland, United Kingdom.

MARGARET (or MARGERY) OF ENGLANDxe “England, Margaret of & Alexander III, King of Scotland”xe “Scotland, Alexander III, King of & Margaret of England”, born 29 Oct. 1240.  She married (as his 1st wife) at York, Yorkshire 26 Dec. 1251 ALEXANDER III, King of Scotlandxe “Scotland”, son and heir of Alexander II, King of Scotlandxe “Scotland”, by his 2nd wife, Mary, daughter of Enguerrand III de Coucyxe “Coucy”, seigneur of Coucy.  He was born at Roxburgh 4 Sept. 1241.  They had two sons, Alexander and David, and one daughter, Margaret (wife of Eric Magnusson, King of Norwayxe “Norway”).  His wife, Margaret, died 26 Feb. 1274/5, buried at Dunfermline.  King Alexander III married (2nd) at Jedburgh 14 Oct. 1285 Yolande, Countess of Montfort-l'Amauryxe “Montfort-l'Amaury”, daughter of Robert IV, Count of Dreuxxe “Dreux”, Brainexe “Braine”, and Montfort-l'Aumaryxe “Montfort-l'Aumary”, by Beatrice, daughter and heiress of Jean I, Count of Montfort-l'Amauryxe “Montfort-l'Amaury”.  They had no issue.  Alexander III, King of Scotlandxe “Scotland”, was killed falling over a cliff at Kinghorn 19 March 1285/6, and was buried at Dunfermline.  No living descendants.
  F iii
Beatrice Princess of ENGLAND 1, 2 was born on 25 Jun 1242 in Bordeaux, Gascogne, France. She died on 24 Mar 1274/1275 in Bretagne, France. She was buried in Grey Friars, London, Middlesex, England, United Kingdom.

BEATRICE (or BÉATRICE) OF ENGLANDxe “England, Beatrice of”, married JEAN DE BRETAGNExe “Bretagne”, Knt., Duke of Brittanyxe “Brittany”, Earl of Richmondxe “Richmond”
  M iv Edmund "Crouchback" Prince of ENGLAND was born on 16 Jan 1244/1245. He died on 5 Jun 1296.
  M v
Richard Prince of ENGLAND 1, 2 was born about 1247 in Westminster, Middlesex, England, United Kingdom. He died before 1256 in Westminster, Middlesex, England, United Kingdom. He was buried in Westminster, Middlesex, England, United Kingdom.
  M vi
John Prince of ENGLAND [scrapbook] 1, 2 was born about 1250 in of, Westminster, Middlesex, England, United Kingdom. He died before 1256 in Westminster, Middlesex, England, United Kingdom. He was buried in Westminster, Middlesex, England, United Kingdom.
  F vii
Catherine Princess of ENGLAND 1, 2 was born on 25 Nov 1253 in Westminster, Middlesex, England, United Kingdom. She died in BET 3 MAY 1256 AND 1258 in Westminster, Middlesex, England, United Kingdom. She was buried in Westminster, Middlesex, England, United Kingdom.
  M viii
William Prince of ENGLAND Templar 1, 2 was born about 1256 in of, Westminster, Middlesex, England, United Kingdom. He was buried in New Temple, London, Middlesex, England, United Kingdom.
  M ix
Henry Prince of ENGLAND 1, 2 was born about 1258 in of, Westminster, Middlesex, England, United Kingdom. He died in Died Young, Westminster, Middlesex, England, United Kingdom. He was buried in Westminster, Middlesex, England, United Kingdom.

Edward I Longshanks PLANTAGENET King Of England [Parents] [scrapbook] 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 was born 8, 9, 10 on 17 Jun 1239 in Westminster Palace, London, Middlesex, England, United Kingdom. He was christened on 21 Jun 1239 in Westminster, Middlesex, England, United Kingdom. He died 11, 12, 13 on 7 Jul 1307 in Burgh-On-The-Sands, Near Carlisle. He was buried on 28 Oct 1307 in Westminster Abbey, Westminster, Middlesex, England, United Kingdom. Edward married Margaret of FRANCE.

Other marriages:
CASTILE AND LEÓN, Leonor Princess of

Historical Figures Gallery
Bio for Edward I

Edward I was the first King of England to make government accountable to its supporters, and he instituted reforms that created the country's first parliamentary body.

Edward was the oldest son of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence.  When he married Eleanor of Castile, his father gave him authority over the administration of Ireland and Wales, as well as Gascony in France.  He inherited the throne of England when his father died in 1272.

As a young man, Edward distinguished himself in the military.  In an uprising of the nobility sometimes called "The Baron's War," he led the King's army and killed his father's rival, Simon de Montfort. He also played an important part in the eighth crusade.

Edward's monarchy was noteworthy for his efforts to use the rule of law to improve conditions in his country.  He believed that the nobles who paid for the government should have a say in how it was run, and he expanded the Great Council until it actually had parliamentary powers.  He also created the first Statute of Westminster to deal with administrative abuse, issued the Quo Warranto to protect feudal power, and the Statute of Mortmain to stop the unlicensed donation of land to the Catholic Church.

Much of Edward's reign, however, was spent on unsuccessful efforts to enforce his authority over outlying parts of the kingdom.  Unable to negotiate, he had to go to war in order to annex Wales.

His efforts to overcome Scotland were even more complex.  Initially, Alexander III cooperated by turning over Scottish lands in England to Edward. However, Edward's efforts to formally link the two countries were undermined when a proposed marriage of the heirs to the two counties in infancy was undone by the death of the Scottish King's daughter.

When the Scottish throne became vacant, Edward was called on to choose a successor.  Although Robert Bruce was the popular choice, Edward appointed John Balliol who was prepared to take an oath of loyalty to England.

At this time, Edward was also having difficulty controlling his French territories and was becoming increasingly unpopular at home.  To deal with his domestic problems, he called the first assembly of the three estates, which came to be known as the Model Parliament.  His difficulties in France were reduced by his second marriage, for which he chose the French King's sister.

This freed him to focus on the further problems that had erupted in Scotland.  Edward's first act was to take the stone that was used in Scottish coronations and bring it to England.  When the Scotch took up arms, Edward led his troops north and defeated them. Eventually, their leader, William Wallace, was captured and put to death.

In defiance, Robert Bruce took over the leadership of his country and arranged to have himself crowned King Robert I.  When Edward marched north to fight Robert, he was brought down by his own old age and ill health.  He died near Carlisle in Scotland.

Major Events

1254 - Married Eleanor of Castile.
1265 - Defeated Simon de Montfort.
1270 - Eighth Crusade.
1274 - Crowned King of England.
1275 - First Statute of Westminster.
1282 - Conquest of Wales.
1290 - Death of Eleanor.
1295 - Model Parliament.
1296 - Removed Scottish coronation stone to England. Married Princess Margaret of France.
1298 - British victory at Falkirk.
1305 - Executed William Wallace.
1306 - Crowned Robert Bruce.

Did you know?

Edward's first wife, Eleanor, went with him on the eighth crusade.

Copyright © 1994 Bureau of Electronic Publishing

EDWARD I (r. 1272-1307)

Born in June 1239 at Westminster, Edward was named by his father Henry III after the last Anglo Saxon king (and his father's favourite saint), Edward the Confessor. Edward's parents were renowned for their patronage of the arts (his mother, Eleanor of Provence, encouraged Henry III to spend money on the arts, which included the rebuilding of Westminster Abbey and a still-extant magnificent shrine to house the body of Edward the Confessor), and Edward received a disciplined education - reading and writing in Latin and French, with training in the arts, sciences and music.

In 1254, Edward travelled to Spain for an arranged marriage at the age of 15 to 9-year-old Eleanor of Castile. Just before Edward's marriage, Henry III gave him the duchy of Gascony, one of the few remnants of the once vast French possessions of the English Angevin kings. Gascony was part of a package which included parts of Ireland, the Channel Islands and the King's lands in Wales to provide an income for Edward. Edward then spent a year in Gascony, studying its administration.

Edward spent his young adulthood learning harsh lessons from Henry III's failures as a king, culminating in a civil war in which he fought to defend his father. Henry's ill-judged and expensive intervention in Sicilian affairs (lured by the Pope's offer of the Sicilian crown to Henry's younger son) failed, and aroused the anger of powerful barons including Henry's brother-in-law Simon de Montfort. Bankrupt and threatened with excommunication, Henry was forced to agree to the Provisions of Oxford in 1258, under which his debts were paid in exchange for substantial reforms; a Great Council of 24, partly nominated by the barons, assumed the functions of the King's Council.

Henry repudiated the Provisions in 1261 and sought the help of the French king Louis IX (later known as St Louis for his piety and other qualities). This was the only time Edward was tempted to side with his charismatic and politically ruthless godfather Simon de Montfort - he supported holding a Parliament in his father's absence.

However, by the time Louis IX decided to side with Henry in the dispute and civil war broke out in England in 1263, Edward had returned to his father's side and became de Montfort's greatest enemy. After winning the battle of Lewes in 1264 (after which Edward became a hostage to ensure his father abided by the terms of the peace), de Montfort summoned the Great Parliament in 1265 - this was the first time cities and burghs sent representatives to the parliament. (Historians differ as to whether de Montfort was an enlightened liberal reformer or an unscrupulous opportunist using any means to advance himself.)

In May 1265, Edward escaped from tight supervision whilst hunting. On 4 August, Edward and his allies outmanoeuvred de Montfort in a savage battle at Evesham; de Montfort predicted his own defeat and death 'let us commend our souls to God, because our bodies are theirs ... they are approaching wisely, they learned this from me.' With the ending of the civil war, Edward worked hard at social and political reconciliation between his father and the rebels, and by 1267 the realm had been pacified.

In April 1270 Parliament agreed an unprecedented levy of one-twentieth of every citizen's goods and possessions to finance Edward's Crusade to the Holy Lands. Edward left England in August 1270 to join the highly respected French king Louis IX on Crusade. At a time when popes were using the crusading ideal to further their own political ends in Italy and elsewhere, Edward and King Louis were the last crusaders in the medieval tradition of aiming to recover the Holy Lands. Louis died of the plague in Tunis before Edward's arrival, and the French forces were bought off from pursuing their campaign. Edward decided to continue regardless: 'by the blood of God, though all my fellow soldiers and countrymen desert me, I will enter Acre ... and I will keep my word and my oath to the death'.

Edward arrived in Acre in May 1271 with 1,000 knights; his crusade was to prove an anticlimax. Edward's small force limited him to the relief of Acre and a handful of raids, and divisions amongst the international force of Christian Crusaders led to Edward's compromise truce with the Baibars. In June 1272, Edward survived a murder attempt by an Assassin (an order of Shi'ite Muslims) and left for Sicily later in the year. He was never to return on crusade.

Meanwhile, Henry III died on 16 November 1272. Edward succeeded to the throne without opposition - given his track record in military ability and his proven determination to give peace to the country, enhanced by his magnified exploits on crusade. In Edward's absence, a proclamation in his name delcared that he had succeeded by hereditary right, and the barons swore allegeiance to him. Edward finally arrived in London in August 1274 and was crowned at Westminster Abbey. Aged 35, he was a veteran warrior ('the best lance in all the world', according to contemporaries), a leader with energy and vision, and with a formidable temper.

Edward was determined to enforce English kings' claims to primacy in the British Isles. The first part of his reign was dominated by Wales. At that time, Wales consisted of a number of disunited small Welsh princedoms; the South Welsh princes were in uneasy alliance with the Marcher lords (feudal earldoms and baronies set up by the Norman kings to protect the English border against Welsh raids) against the Northern Welsh based in the rocky wilds of Gwynedd, under the strong leadership of Llywelyn ap Gruffyd, Prince of Gwynedd. In 1247, under the Treaty of Woodstock, Llywelyn had agreed that he held North Wales in fee to the English king. By 1272, Llywelyn had taken advantage of the English civil wars to consolidate his position, and the Peace of Montgomery (1267) had confirmed his title as Prince of Wales and recognised his conquests.

However, Llywelyn maintained that the rights of his principality were 'entirely separate from the rights' of England; he did not attend Edward's coronation and refused to do homage. Finally, in 1277 Edward decided to fight Llywelyn 'as a rebel and disturber of the peace', and quickly defeated him. War broke out again in 1282 when Llywelyn joined his brother David in rebellion. Edward's determination, military experience and skilful use of ships brought from England for deployment along the North Welsh coast, drove Llywelyn back into the mountains of North Wales. The death of Llywelyn in a chance battle in 1282 and the subsequent execution of his brother David effectively ended attempts at Welsh independence.

Under the Statute of Wales of 1284, Wales was brought into the English legal framework and the shire system was extended. In the same year, a son was born in Wales to Edward and Queen Eleanor (also named Edward, this future king was proclaimed the first English Prince of Wales in 1301). The Welsh campaign had produced one of the largest armies ever assembled by an English king - some 15,000 infantry (including 9,000 Welsh and a Gascon contingent); the army was a formidable combination of heavy Anglo-Norman cavalry and Welsh archers, whose longbow skills laid the foundations of later military victories in France such as that at Agincourt. As symbols of his military strength and political authority, Edward spent some £80,000 on a network of castles and lesser strongholds in North Wales, employing a work-force of up to 3, 500 men drawn from all over England. (Some castles, such as Conway and Caernarvon, remain in their ruined layouts today, as examples of fortresses integrated with fortified towns.)

Edward's campaign in Wales was based on his determination to ensure peace and extend royal authority, and it had broad support in England. Edward saw the need to widen support among lesser landowners and the merchants and traders of the towns. The campaigns in Wales, France and Scotland left Edward deeply in debt, and the taxation required to meet those debts meant enrolling national support for his policies.


To raise money, Edward summoned Parliament - up to 1286 he summoned Parliaments twice a year. (The word 'Parliament' came from the 'parley' or talks which the King had with larger groups of advisers.) In 1295, when money was needed to wage war against Philip of France (who had confiscated the duchy of Gascony), Edward summoned the most comprehensive assembly ever summoned in England. This became known as the Model Parliament, for it represented various estates: barons, clergy, and knights and townspeople. By the end of Edward's reign, Parliament usually contained representatives of all these estates.

Edward used his royal authority to establish the rights of the Crown at the expense of traditional feudal privileges, to promote the uniform administration of justice, to raise income to meet the costs of war and government, and to codify the legal system. In doing so, his methods emphasised the role of Parliament and the common law. With the able help of his Chancellor, Robert Burnell, Bishop of Bath and Wells, Edward introduced much new legislation. He began by commissioning a thorough survey of local government (with the results entered into documents known as the Hundred Rolls), which not only defined royal rights and possessions but also revealed administrative abuses.

The First Statute of Westminster (1275) codified 51 existing laws - many originating from Magna Carta - covering areas ranging from extortion by royal officers, lawyers and bailiffs, methods of procedure in civil and criminal cases to freedom of elections. Edward's first Parliament also enacted legislation on wool, England's most important export at the time. At the request of the merchants, Edward was given a customs grant on wool and hides which amounted to nearly £10,000 a year. Edward also obtained income from the licence fees imposed by the Statute of Mortmain (1279), under which gifts of land to the Church (often made to evade death duties) had to have a royal licence.

The Statutes of Gloucester (1278) and Quo Warranto (1290) attempted to define and regulate feudal jurisdictions, which were an obstacle to royal authority and to a uniform system of justice for all; the Statute of Winchester (1285) codified the policing system for preserving public order. Other statutes had a long-term effect on land law and on the feudal framework in England. The Second Statute of Westminster (1285) restricted the alienation of land and kept entailed estates within families: tenants were only tenants for life and not able to sell the property to others. The Third Statute of Westminster or Quia Emptores (1290) stopped subinfeudation (in which tenants of land belonging to the King or to barons subcontracted their properties and related feudal services).

Edward's assertion that the King of Scotland owed feudal allegiance to him, and the embittered Anglo-Scottish relations leading to war which followed, were to overshadow the rest of Edward's reign in what was to become known as the 'Great Cause'. Under a treaty of 1174, William the Lion of Scotland had become the vassal to Henry II, but in 1189 Richard I had absolved William from his allegiance. Intermarriage between the English and Scottish royal houses promoted peace between the two countries until the premature death of Alexander III in 1286. In 1290, his granddaughter and heiress, Margaret the 'Maid of Norway' (daughter of the King of Norway, she was pledged to be married to Edward's then only surviving son, Edward of Caernarvon), also died. For Edward, this dynastic blow was made worse by the death in the same year of his much-loved wife Eleanor (her body was ceremonially carried from Lincoln to Westminster for burial, and a memorial cross erected at every one of the twelve resting places, including what became known as Charing Cross in London).

In the absence of an obvious heir to the Scottish throne, the disunited Scottish magnates invited Edward to determine the dispute. In order to gain acceptance of his authority in reaching a verdict, Edward sought and obtained recognition from the rival claimants that he had the 'sovereign lordship of Scotland and the right to determine our several pretensions'. In November 1292, Edward and his 104 assessors gave the whole kingdom to John Balliol or Baliol as the claimant closest to the royal line; Balliol duly swore loyalty to Edward and was crowned at Scone.

John Balliol's position proved difficult. Edward insisted that Scotland was not independent and he, as sovereign lord, had the right to hear in England appeals against Balliol's judgements in Scotland. In 1294, Balliol lost authority amongst Scottish magnates by going to Westminster after receiving a summons from Edward; the magnates decided to seek allies in France and concluded the 'Auld Alliance' with France (then at war with England over the duchy of Gascony) - an alliance which was to influence Scottish history for the next 300 years. In March 1296, having failed to negotiate a settlement, the English led by Edward sacked the city of Berwick near the River Tweed. Balliol formally renounced his homage to Edward in April 1296, speaking of 'grievous and intolerable injuries ... for instance by summoning us outside our realm ... as your own whim dictated ... and so ... we renounce the fealty and homage which we have done to you'. Pausing to design and start the rebuilding of Berwick as the financial capital of the country, Edward's forces overran remaining Scottish resistance. Scots leaders were taken hostage, and Edinburgh Castle, amongst others, was seized. Balliol surrendered his realm and spent the rest of his life in exile in England and Normandy.

Having humiliated Balliol, Edward's insensitive policies in Scotland continued: he appointed a trio of Englishmen to run the country. Edward had the Stone of Scone - also known as the Stone of Destiny - on which Scottish sovereigns had been crowned removed to London and subsequently placed in the Coronation Chair in Westminster Abbey (where it remained until it was returned to Scotland in 1996). Edward never built stone castles on strategic sites in Scotland, as he had done so successfully in Wales - possibly because he did not have the funds for another ambitious castle-building programme.

By 1297, Edward was facing the biggest crisis in his reign, and his commitments outweighed his resources. Chronic debts were being incurred by wars against France, in Flanders, Gascony and Wales as well as Scotland; the clergy were refusing to pay their share of the costs, with the Archbishop of Canterbury threatening excommunication; Parliament was reluctant to contribute to Edward's expensive and unsuccessful military policies; the Earls of Hereford and Norfolk refused to serve in Gascony, and the barons presented a formal statement of their grievances. In the end, Edward was forced to reconfirm the Charters (including Magna Carta) to obtain the money he required; the Archbishop was eventually suspended in 1306 by the new Gascon Pope Clement V; a truce was declared with France in 1297, followed by a peace treaty in 1303 under which the French king restored the duchy of Gascony to Edward.

In Scotland, Edward pursued a series of campaigns from 1298 onwards. William Wallace had risen in Balliol's name and recovered most of Scotland, before being defeated by Edward at the battle of Falkirk in 1298. (Wallace escaped, only to be captured in 1305, allegedly by the treachery of a fellow Scot and taken to London, where he was executed.) In 1304, Edward summoned a full Parliament (which elected Scottish representatives also attended), in which arrangements for the settlement of Scotland were made. The new government in Scotland featured a Council, which included Robert the Bruce. Bruce unexpectedly rebelled in 1306 by killing a fellow counsellor and was crowned king of Scotland at Scone. Despite his failing health, Edward was carried north to pursue another campaign, but he died en route at Burgh on Sands on 7 July 1307 aged 68.

According to chroniclers, Edward requested that his bones should be carried on Scottish campaigns and that his heart be taken to the Holy Land. However, Edward was buried at Westminster Abbey in a plain black marble tomb, which in later years was painted with the words Scottorum malleus (Hammer of the Scots) and Pactum serva (Keep troth). Throughout the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, the Exchequer paid to keep candles burning 'round the body of the Lord Edward, formerly King of England, of famous memory'.

Margaret of FRANCE 1. Margaret married Edward I Longshanks PLANTAGENET King Of England.

They had the following children.

  M i Thomas of Brotherton PLANTAGENET Earl of Norfolk.

John LAWRENCE ALIAS HUTCHINS [Parents]. John married Alice.

John's will was probated 1 on 12 Sep 1579 in Taunton, Somerset, England, United Kingdom.

In the name of god Amen. The vijth day of September I John Lawrence als Hutchins of the parishe of St. James nere Tanton beinge sicke of body but of good and pfitt minde and remebrance do make my last will and testamt in mann'  & forme Followinge. First I geve and bequeth my soule unto the handes of Almighty God my maker and redeemer And my body to be buried in ye churchyard of St. James Itm I geve to St. Androes Church of Wells iiijd Itm to ye church of St. James iij8 iiijd. Itm to Robert Sawder my frise coate to the olde Jefferie my best frise Jerkin. Itm I geve John Babb my sonne in lawe my Fusten dublett and my best Russett hose my will yt this shalbe deliu'ed presentlye after my decease Itm I geve to eu'y of my sonne in lawe childere Thoms Trobrige a silu' spoone of the better sort Itm I geve to eu'y of my sonne in lawe Wm Pearce his children to eu‘y of them a silu' spoone. To Thomas Pearce to Alice and Justyman a silu'  spoone of the better sorte/ To Willyam Pearce & to Jone a silu'  spoune of the worser sorte. Item I geve to eu'y of my sonne in lawe John Gregorye his children a silu'

THE TROWBRIDGE ANCESTRY IN ENGLAND  135

spoone of the worser sorte Itm I geve to Richard Pearce my sonne in law my best brasse Crocke and my white brasse pann. ltm I geve & bequeth to my daughtr Jone Trobrige my fierin (?] fernis pan Itm I geve and bequeath to my daughtr Agnis Pearce my grete pan Itm I geve to my daughter in lawe Jone Gregory my Riminge pan. Itm I geve Agnis Harboroughe my servaunt a platter  & a porteg'  of ye best sort. Itm to Mary Hobbes my servaunt a platter & a poding'  of ye best sort Itm my will is that wringe the tylett and ij vates belonginge to the wringe the pipes & hogsheds the plor bord the C obam  and the binchinge aboute the plor as remaine here as Implemts of the house Also my will is that none of this shalbe deliu'd but be at my wives Vse vntill after her decease. The rest of my goods & cattells moveable and vnmoveable. In whose Custody so eu'  they be or may hereafter be founde my dettes and legace geven and paid  I geve and bequeth to Alice my wief whom I make my whole executrix: I make Robert Stone & George Stone my ou'sears to see this my last will and testament truly pformed and donne. And for ther paines to have xvjd a peece of them. Witnes Robert Stone, George Stone, John Gregory, Willyam Pearce and Richard Pearce with others.
Probatn fuit hinn testm Cora Archmo Tanton in ad ibus Thome Troobridge in Tanton xiio die mens Septembris Anno dni 1579

[Archdeaconry of Taunton Book V. fo. 471]

Alice. Alice married John LAWRENCE ALIAS HUTCHINS.

They had the following children.

  F i Joan LAWRENCE ALIAS HUTCHINS died in 1620.

Thomas LAWRENCE ALIAS HUTCHINS. Thomas married Elizabeth.

Thomas's will was probated 1 in Jan 1576/1577 in St Mary Magdalen, Taunton, Somerset, England, United Kingdom. He had a will 2 on 1 Jul 1576 in Taunton, Somerset, England, United Kingdom.


Thomas Laurence als Hutchins of Holway in St. Mary Magdalene in Tanton, county Somerset. Will 1 July 1576: proved last January 1576. To Henry Laurence als Hutchins my son my best cow. One close in Cocklehorne and 3 platters at decease of his mother. To Nicholas Laurence ala Hutchins £5. To John Bowier £6. 13s. 4d. To son John Laurence als Hutchins 40s. To Mary Bowier daughter of said John Bowier £3. 6s. 8d. when 22. To John How my son in law 3s. 4d. To son Thomas Laurence ala Hutchins my tablebord. To son Henry the wheat that now groweth uppon Boogacres. Residuary Legatee and Executrix: wife Elizabeth. Witnesses:
John Smrthe, Thomas Smythe, Xpofer Hurleighe John Howe with others

[Archdeaconry of Taunton Book V, fo. 261]

Elizabeth. Elizabeth married Thomas LAWRENCE ALIAS HUTCHINS.

They had the following children.

  M i John LAWRENCE ALIAS HUTCHINS.

John PROWSE [Parents] [scrapbook] 1, 2, 3, 4 was born about 1516 in Tiverton, Devonshire, England, United Kingdom. He died 5 on 3 Sep 1585 in Tiverton, Devonshire, England, United Kingdom. John married Alice WHITE.

Alice WHITE 1, 2, 3, 4 died on 13 Aug 1583 in Tiverton, Devonshire, England, United Kingdom. Alice married John PROWSE.

They had the following children.

  M i John PROWSE II was born in 1546. He died on 11 Sep 1598.

Thomas WELBY [Parents] [scrapbook] was born 1 in 1484 in of Moulton, Lincoln, England, United Kingdom. He died about 1524. Thomas married 2 Catherine BRAY.

Thomas had a will 3, 4 on 6 Sep 1520. He was ill with was a lunatic in 1521. His will was probated 5, 6 on 18 Aug 1524.

The following is an extract from Browne Willis' History of Mitred Parliamentary Abbeys, Vol. 1, p. 74, Abbey of Croland:
"Richard Welleby, Esq., of Henry VII, and Thomas Welleby, ‘- -his nephew and heir; they lay in a stately tomb."

Catherine BRAY 1 was born about 1520 in Middlesex, England, United Kingdom. Catherine married 2 Thomas WELBY.

Daughter of Thomas or John Bray of County Middlesex. Remarried------Hall

They had the following children.

  M i Thomas WELBY was christened about 1524. He died in 1570.

Thomas WELBY Esquire [Parents] [scrapbook] 1 was born about 1463. Thomas married Joan LEAKE.

Thomas had a will 2 in 1496.

Thomas Welby, Esquire J. P. 1483, High Sheriff County Lincoln, 1491-2, of Gedney, 1496 bur. Croyland, 1496, near tomb of Richard Welby, his brother, in St. Mary's Chapel. Will dated 1496. Nmaed in father's will. Appointed Supervisor of the estate of Joan, widow of his brother Richard, together with the Lord Prior of ??????.

From the will of Thomas Welby Esquire: "The testator, Thomas welby buried in the Conventional church of Croland, held lands in Gedney in county Lincoln, and in the County of Norfolk: also at Halsted, North Carleton, and Croyle. He wills that "Lands purchased at Little Herum be appropriated for the support of one chaplain for ever, at Moulton, in County of Lincoln, to celebrate mass in future for the soul of the testator, and for the souls of (names his near kin) and all the ancestors of  the aforesaid, and their benefactors."

Joan LEAKE 1 was born about 1465. She died 2 in 1488 in England, United Kingdom. Joan married Thomas WELBY Esquire.

Daughter of Sir Richard Leake a Knight.

They had the following children.

  M i Thomas WELBY was born in 1484. He died about 1524.

Richard THIMBLEBY Knight [Parents] 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 was born 6 about 1507 in Irnham, Lincolnshire, England, United Kingdom. He died 7, 8 on 28 Sep 1590 in Irnham, Lincolnshire, England, United Kingdom. Richard married 9, 10 Katherine TYRWHITT about 1531 in of Immingham, Lincolnshire, England, United Kingdom.

RICHARD THIMBLEBY, Knt., of  Irnham, Beelsby, Bulby, and Hawthorpe, Lincolnshire, Bridgford, Nottinghamshire, and Lynn Regis, Norfolk, Sheriff of Lincolnshure, Knight of the Shire for Lincolnshire, son and heir, born about 1507. He married KATHERINE TYRWHIT (or TYRWHITT), daughter of Robert Tyrwhit, Knt., of Kettleby, Lincolnshire, by Maud (descendant of King Edward I), daughter of Robert Tailboys, Knt., of Kyme, Lincolnshire [see TYRWHIT 14 for her ancestry]. They had three sons, Edward, John, and Richard, and four daughters, including Anne, Elizabeth and Mary. He married (2nd) Elizabeth Moore, perhaps daughter of Thomas Moore. They had one son. During the reign of Queen Mary, he was a convinced Protestant, being classified as “earnest in religion.” SIR RICHARD THIMBLEBY died at Irnham, Lincolnshite 28 Sept. 1590.
T. Wotton English Baronetage 1 (1741): 179 (identifies husband as “John”, son and heir to Sir Richard “Tbimelby”, Knt.) (Tyrwhitt arms: Gules three tyrwhitts (or lapwings) or). G. Baker Hist. &Antiq. of Northampton 1 (1822-1830): 114. AS. Larken & AR. Maddison Lincolnshire Pods. 3 (H.S.P. 52) (1904): 957, 1019. P.W. Hasler House of Commons 1558-16033 (1981): 503-504 (biog. Sir Robert Thymbeby).

Katherine TYRWHITT [Parents] [scrapbook] 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 was born in 1511 in Kettleby, Lincolnshire, England, United Kingdom. She was buried in Grimsby, Lincoln, England, United Kingdom. Katherine married 6, 7 Richard THIMBLEBY Knight about 1531 in of Immingham, Lincolnshire, England, United Kingdom.

They had the following children.

  F i Elizabeth THIMBLEBY was born in 1540. She died after 1571.

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