Ancestors of Tim Farr and Descendants of Stephen Farr Sr. of Concord, Massachusetts and Lidlington, Bedfordshire, England

Robert IRBY [Parents] [scrapbook] 1, 2. Robert married HANSARD 3.


(Son of Bennett (C. i) and________Gainsby.)
Married_____d. of John Hansard.

Whaplode Parish Register. Copied from a newspaper cutting therein.
"Robert Irby or Ireby of Laceby. Robert his eldest son married Jane d. of Thomas Thimbleby Esq., of Polham, Lines. The grandson of Robert was seated at Gosberton who died 21st June, 1552 (¹this Date is incorrect, it should be 1548), having married Alice daughter of John Bountaine Esq., and by her had issue Leonard who was M.P. for Boston from 1st Queen Mary to 6th Philip and Mary, and again in 5 and 13 Elizabeth, and Thomas, seated at Whaplode married Elizabeth Sergeant and was father of Anthony Irby Esq."

Hansard Pedigrees, Harl. Soc., Li, 1903, Lincs Pedigrees, Maddison, Vol. II.
There is a John, fifth son of Sir Richard Hansard, Kt. (aged 18 in 1395) and Joan d. of_____ Ashe, and a John son of Gilbert Hansard (living in 1390), brother of the above Sir Richard.
Either of these Johns might have l)een the father of the wife of Robert (D. I), so far as the dates are concerned.

Issue. Robert (E. I) and Anthony (E. 2).

¹The date of the Inquest P.M. on Anthony of Gosberton is 10th October, 1552, in which it is stated that he died 21st June, 1548.

HANSARD 1. HANSARD married Robert IRBY.

They had the following children.

  M i Robert IRBY.


An Esquire

He had the following children.


Bennett IRBY [Parents] [scrapbook] 1, 2. Bennett married GAINSBY 3.

GAINSBY [Parents] 1. GAINSBY married Bennett IRBY.

They had the following children.

  M i Robert IRBY.

Robert IRBY [Parents] [scrapbook] 1, 2. Robert married Jane LOWDHAM 3.

Jane LOWDHAM [Parents] 1. Jane married Robert IRBY.

They had the following children.

  M i Bennett IRBY.

Sir Robert GAINSBY 1.

A Knight

He had the following children.


Robert IRBY [scrapbook] 1, 2. Robert married FLYTON 3, 4.


Married___d. and co-heiress of Herbert Flynton and Cecilia d. and co-heiress of Sir Walter de la Lynde (living in 1316 and dead before Michaelmas 1320), Lord of Laceby, Lincs.

Herbert Flvnton was born in 1281. and married Cecilia de Ia Lynde in, or before, 1314. The following extracts refer to his age and marriage, etc.

Calendar of In quests, Vol. III, Ed. III, p. 294.
"Proof of age as to a person born in Holderness taken at York, Sept. 5th, 1331. Witnesses included Herbert de Flynton, aged 50."

Calendar of Chancery In quests A.Q.D. (P.R.O. List XVII, p. 149. Lincs and Somerset, 8 Ed. II (1314).
"Grant by Walter de la Lynde of half the manor of Laceby, and half the advowson of the church there to Herbert de Flynton, Cecily his wife, and the heirs of their bodies."

Common Pleas Roll for Easter, 9 Ed. II (1315), Roll 214, mem. 5 d.
On this is enrolled the agreement between Walter and Herbert and Cecily.

Feet of Fines, Lincs, 10 Ed. II (1316), No. 29.
"Final concord between Herbert de Flynton and Cecily his wife, querent. and Walter de la Lynde, deforciant, of moiety of the manor of Leysseby and a moiety of the


advowson of the church of the same manor, which Walter granted to Herbert and Cecily and to the heirs by Herbert of the body of Cecily, with the remainder to Walter and his heirs."

Yorks Arch. Soc. (Rec. Series), XLII, Fines 1327/47, p.18.
Herbert de Flynton took a messuage in Flynton (Yorks) from Robert le Taillour in 1329.

Laceby Subsidy Roll, 1327.
Herbert de Flynton, Robert de Riby and Walter de la Launde are mentioned. Robert de Riby might be a mispelling of Robert de Ireby as names in these old documents are variously spelt; on the other hand there is a place called Riby not far from Laceby.

De la Lynde.
History of Dorset, John Hutchins (1873), Vol. IV, p. 479, gives a pedigree of the De la Lyndes, mentioning Sir Walter de la Lynde, Kt., 25 years of age in 1273, and living in 1316, died before March 1320 leaving no male heir, but five daughters including Cecilia, who married  Herbert de Flynton before March 1316, and Margery, who married John atte Grene before 1320. In the narrative account of the family the property is said to have included land in Suffolk, Surrey, Leysby, near Grimsby in Lines, and Scaleby in Cumberland. There is a monument to William Launde ob. 1424 in the church at Laccby; this is probably the William who was born in 1345, great great grandson of the above Sir Walter de Lynde.

Issue. Robert (B. I).

FLYTON [Parents] 1, 2. FLYTON married Robert IRBY.

They had the following children.

  M i Robert IRBY.

Sir John LOWDHAM 1.

A Knight

He had the following children.

  F i Jane LOWDHAM.

Herbert FLYTON 1, 2. Herbert married LYNDE.

An Esquire

LYNDE [Parents] 1, 2. LYNDE married Herbert FLYTON.

They had the following children.


John Lackland PLANTAGENET King of England [Parents] [scrapbook] 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 was born 7, 8 on 24 Dec 1166 in Beaumont Palace, Oxford, Oxfordshire, England, United Kingdom. He died 9, 10 on 19 Oct 1216 in Newark Castle, Nottinghamshire, England, United Kingdom. He was buried in Worcester, Worcestershire, England, United Kingdom. John married 11, 12 Queen Isabella de Angoulême TAILLEFER on 24 Aug 1200 in Bordeaux, Gascogne, France.

Other marriages:
, Clemence

Reigned 1199-1216. Signed Magna Carta in 1215 at Runnymede. His reign saw renewal of war with Phillip II Augustus of France to whom he has lost several continental possessions including Normandy by 1205. He came into conflict with his Barons and was forced to Sign the Magna Carta. His later repudiation of the charter led to the first barons war 1215-17 during which John died. Burke says he was born in 1160. King of Ireland 1177, Count of Mortain 1189, Earl of Gloucester.

JOHN (1199-1216)

John (reigned 1199-1216) was an able administrator interested in law and government but he neither trusted others nor was trusted by them. Heavy taxation, disputes with the Church (John was excommunicated by the Pope in 1209) and unsuccessful attempts to recover his French possessions made him unpopular. Many of his barons rebelled and in June 1215 they forced the King to sign a peace treaty accepting their reforms.

This treaty, later known as Magna Carta, limited royal powers, defined feudal obligations between the King and the barons, and guaranteed a number of rights. The most influential clauses concerned the freedom of the Church; the redress of grievances of owners and tenants of land; the need to consult the Great Council of the Realm so as to prevent unjust taxation; mercantile and trading relationships; regulation of the machinery of justice so that justice be denied to no one; and the requirement to control the behaviour of royal officials. The most important clauses established the basis of habeas corpus ('you have the body'), i.e. that no one shall be imprisoned except by due process of law, and that 'to no one will we sell, to no one will we refuse or delay right or justice'.

The Charter also established a council of barons who were to ensure that the Sovereign observed the Charter, with the right to wage war on him if he did not. Magna Carta was the first formal document insisting that the Sovereign was as much under the rule of law as his people, and that the rights of individuals were to be upheld even against the wishes of the sovereign. As a source of fundamental constitutional principles, Magna Carta came to be seen as an important definition of aspects of English law, and in later centuries as the basis of the liberties of the English people.

As a peace treaty Magna Carta was a failure and the rebels invited Louis of France to become their king. When John died in 1216 England was in the grip of civil war.

Queen Isabella de Angoulême TAILLEFER [Parents] 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 was born 6 in 1188 in Angouleme, Charente, France. She died 7, 8, 9 on 31 May 1246 in Fontevraud, Maine-et-Loire, France. She was buried in Fontevrault Abbey, Fontevrault, Maine-Et-Loire, France. Isabella married 10, 11 John Lackland PLANTAGENET King of England on 24 Aug 1200 in Bordeaux, Gascogne, France.

She was betrothed to Hugh before she married John. After John's death she retired to her native city and eventually married Hugh after about 3 years. Countess of Angoulême 1202.

John married (2nd) at Bordeaux 24 August 1200 ISABEL OF ANGOULÊMExe “England, John, King of & Isabel of Angoulême”xe “Angoulême, Isabel of & John, King of England”, daughter and heiress of Adémar (or Aimar) III Tailleferxe “Taillefer”, Count of Angoulêmexe “Angoulême, Adémar (or Aimar) III Taillefer, Count of”, by Alice (or Alaïs, Alaidis), daughter of Pierre of Francexe “France, Pierre of”, seigneur of Courtenayxe “Courtenay”, Montargis XE "Montargis" , and Châteaurenard XE "Châteaurenard"  (younger son of Louis VI, King of Francexe “France, Louis VI, King of”).  She was born in 1188, and was previously contracted to marry Hugues IX le Brunxe “Brun” (died Nov. 1219), Count of La Marchexe “La Marche”xe “Marche”, seigneur of Lusignanxe “Lusignan” and Couhéxe “Couhé”.  She was crowned queen 8 Oct. 1200.

Marriage Notes:

MARRIAGE: date is from Internet:

They had the following children.

  M i Henry III PLANTAGENET King of England was born on 1 Oct 1207. He died on 15 Jun 1272.
  M ii
Richard Prince of ENGLAND [scrapbook] 1, 2 was born on 5 Jan 1208/1209 in Winchester, Hampshire, England, United Kingdom. He died on 2 Apr 1272 in Berkhamstead, Hertfordshire, England, United Kingdom. He was buried on 13 Apr 1272 in Hailes Abbey, Hailes, Gloucestershire, England, United Kingdom.

RICHARD OF ENGLAND, Knt., Earl of Cornwallxe “Cornwall, Richard, Earl of”, Count of Poitouxe “Poitou, Richard, Count of”, King of the Romansxe “Romans, Richard, King of the” (or King of Almainxe “Almain, Richard, King of”), married (1st) ISABEL MARSHALxe “Marshal”; (2nd) SANCHE (or SANCHIA) OF PROVENCExe “Provence”; (3rd) BEATRICE DE FALKENBURGxe “Falkenburg”
  F iii
Joane Princess of ENGLAND 1, 2 was born on 22 Jul 1210 in Coucy, Alsne, France. She died on 4 Mar 1237/1238 in London, Middlesex, England, United Kingdom. She was buried in Tarrant, Keynstan, Dorsetshire, England, United Kingdom.

JOAN OF ENGLANDxe “England, Joan of & Alexander II, King of Scotland”xe “Scotland, Alexander II, King of Scotland & Joan of England”, born at Gloucester 22 July 1210.  In 1214 she was contracted to marry Geoffrey de Lusignan XE “Lusignan” , son of Hugh de Lusignan, Count of la Marche, which marriage did not take place.  She married at York, Yorkshire 19 June 1221 (as his 1st wife) ALEXANDER II, King of Scotlandxe “Scotland”, Knt., son and heir of William the Lion, King of Scotlandxe “Scotland, William the Lion, King of”, by Ermengarde, daughter of Richard, Vicomte of Beaumontxe “Beaumont” and Sainte-Suzannexe “Sainte-Suzanne”.  He was born at Haddington, East Lothian 24 August 1198.  They had no issue.  He was crowned at Scone 6 Dec. 1214.  Joan died at York, Yorkshire 4 March 1237/8, buried at Tarrant Keynstan, Dorset.  Alexander II married (2nd) 15 May 1239 Mary de Coucyxe “Coucy, Marie de”, 2nd daughter of Enguerrand III de Coucyxe “Coucy, Enguerrand de”, seigneur of Coucy.  They had one son, Alexander (III) [King of Scotlandxe “Scotland”].  Alexander II, King of Scotlandxe “Scotland”, died at Kerrera in the bay of Oban 8 July 1249, and was buried at Melrose Abbey.
  F iv
Isabel Princess of ENGLAND 1, 2 was born in 1214 in of, Winchester, Hampshire, England, United Kingdom. She died on 1 Dec 1241 in Foggia, Apulia, Italy. She was buried in Andria, Provincia di Bari, Apulia, Italy.

ISABEL OF ENGLANDxe “England, Isabel of & Frederick II, Emperor of the Romans”xe “Frederick II, Emperor of the Romans & Isabel of England”, born at Gloucester 1214.  She married at Worms 15 or 20 July 1235 (as his 4th wife) FREDERICK (or FRIEDRICH) II, Emperor of the Romans, King of Jerusalemxe “Jerusalem” and Sicilyxe “Sicily”, Duke of Apulia XE “Apulia” , Prince of Capua XE “Capua” , son and heir of Heinrich VI, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Sicilyxe “Sicily”, by Constance, daughter of Roger II, King of Sicilyxe “Sicily”.  He was born at Iesi 26 Dec. 1194.  They had four children, including two sons,Heinrich and Frederick (or Friedrich), and one daughter, Margarethe (wife of Albrecht II, Margrave of Meissen, Landgrave of Thüringen).  Isabel died in childbirth at Foggia 1 Dec. 1241, and was buried at Andria Cathedral.  Emperor FREDERICK II died at Fiorentino Castle in Lucera 13 Dec. 1250.  Their daughter, Margarethe, is a remote ancestress of the house of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.
  F v
Eleanor Princess of ENGLAND 1 was born in 1215 in Winchester, Hampshire, England, United Kingdom. She died on 13 Apr 1275 in Montargis, Loiret, France. She was buried in Montargis, Loiret, France.

ELEANOR OF ENGLAND XE “England, Eleanor of” , married (1st) WILLIAM MARSHALxe “Marshal”, 5th Earl of Pembrokexe “Pembroke”; (2nd) SIMON DE MONTFORTxe “Montfort”, Earl of Leicester.

Henry II PLANTAGENET King of England [Parents] [scrapbook] 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 was born 7, 8, 9, 10 on 5 Mar 1133 in Le Mans, Anjou, France. He died 11, 12 on 6 Jul 1189 in Chinon Castle, Indre Et Loire, France. He was buried on 8 Jul 1189 in Fontevrault Abbey, Fontevrault, Maine-Et-Loire, France. Henry married 13, 14, 15, 16 Elbeonore Princess of AQUITAINE 17, 18, 19 on 18 May 1151 in Bordeaux Cathedral, Bordeaux, France.

Other marriages:
PLANTAGENET, Ida (Bigod) Countess of Norfolk

Henry II, King of England, was born at Le Mans, Normandy in 1133.  As the son of Count Geoffrey Plantagenet of Anjou and Matilda, daughter of King Henry I, Henry became Duke of Normandy in 1150, and after his father's death in 1151, was named Count of Anjou.

In 1152 he married Eleanor of Aquitaine, thereby acquiring the Duchy of Aquitaine.  When Henry became King of England, after Stephen's death in 1154, he reigned over one of the most extensive realms in western Europe.

Henry II's first objective as King was to regain the royal powers of his grandfather King Henry I.  He did this by reclaiming royal lands and castles, by recovering northern English counties from the Scots, and by revamping the systems of finance, administration, and justice.

His early success, however, did not aid Henry in his attempts to re-establish the acceptance of the Church customs of his grandfather's time.  Henry met with strong opposition from Thomas a Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, who resisted Henry's wishes for regal authority in punishing convicted clergy of crimes.  Becket felt that this power should be reserved for the Church courts, not the throne. In turn, Henry exiled Becket, and in 1170, Becket was murdered by four of Henry's knights who hoped that the killing would please Henry.  On the contrary, Becket's death left Henry with a feeling of great distress, and he prudently escaped to Ireland while matters settled down.  In 1171, while on temporary leave, he was accepted as Lord of Ireland.

King Henry II reconciled with the Church in 1172, but other problems were on the horizon.  In 1173 family matters boiled to the point of rebellion.  After years of being constantly unfaithful to his wife, Eleanor, and of denying his sons the power their titles should have secured, Henry was plotted against by his family who allied themselves with King Louis VII of France, the Count of Flanders, King William of Scotland, and other dissatisfied nobles.  Henry, being sufficiently warned and protected by loyal, capable officers, managed to defeat the rebels and to capture his wife in 1174.

During his later years, Henry II was successful in making constructive changes in England.  His greatest achievements include drawing up laws and organizing the courts to administer them properly and professionalizing the entire administration in general to allow his country more justice than it had ever known.

Despite Henry's great accomplishments, the quarrels and jealousies of his sons persisted.  In 1189 Henry was forced to make humiliating peace, and, broken by the attacks of his sons, he died two days later on July 6, 1189 at Chinon, France.

Major Events

1150 - Named Duke of Normandy.
1151 - Named Count of Anjou.
1152 - Married Eleanor of Aquitaine.
1170 - Murder of Archbishop of Canterbury; Henry left for Ireland.
1171 - Became Lord of Ireland.
1172 - Reconciled with the Church.
1173 - Family rebeled against him.
1174 - Defeated the rebels.
1189 - Family humiliated Henry; he died.

Did you know?

King Henry II's reconstruction of the justice system in England led to great progress in his time.  By using the Roman legal concept of a distinction between the possession of property and the absolute right to property, Henry made it possible for those who had been physically dispossessed of their land to get a fair trial in court, instead of having to duel for the land.

Copyright © 1994 Bureau of Electronic Publishing

HENRY II CURTMANTLE (r. 1154-1189)

Henry II ruled over an empire which stretched from the Scottish border to the Pyrenees. One of the strongest, most energetic and imaginative rulers, Henry was the inheritor of three dynasties who had acquired Aquitaine by marriage; his charters listed them: 'King of the English, Duke of the Normans and Aquitanians and Count of the Angevins'. The King spent only 13 years of his reign in England; the other 21 years were spent on the continent in his territories in what is now France. Henry's rapid movements in carrying out his dynastic responsibilities astonished the French king, who noted 'now in England, now in Normandy, he must fly rather than travel by horse or ship'.

By 1158, Henry had restored to the Crown some of the lands and royal power lost by Stephen; Malcom IV of Scotland was compelled to return the northern counties. Locally chosen sheriffs were changed into royally appointed agents charged with enforcing the law and collecting taxes in the counties. Personally interested in government and law, Henry made use of juries and re-introduced the sending of justices (judges) on regular tours of the country to try cases for the Crown. His legal reforms have led him to be seen as the founder of English Common Law.

Henry's disagreements with the Archbishop of Canterbury (the king's former chief adviser), Thomas à Becket, over Church-State relations ended in Becket's murder in 1170 and a papal interdict on England. Family disputes over territorial ambitions almost wrecked the king's achievements. Henry died in France in 1189, at war with his son Richard, who had joined forces with King Philip of France to attack Normandy.

Elbeonore Princess of AQUITAINE [Parents] [scrapbook] 1, 2, 3 was born 4, 5 in 1123 in Chateau de Belin, Guyenne, France. She died 6, 7 on 31 Mar 1204 in Fontevraud Abbey, Maine-et-Loire, France. She was buried in Abbaye de Fontevrault, Fontevrault, France. Elbeonore married 8, 9, 10, 11 Henry II PLANTAGENET King of England 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 on 18 May 1151 in Bordeaux Cathedral, Bordeaux, France.

Queen Eleanor - In an age known largely for the exploits of kings, princes, dukes, and their warriors, Eleanor of Aquitaine stood out as one of the most remarkable of women. She was the wife and mother of kings and a dominant political force in the Europe of her time.

When her fagther died in 1137 she inherited his domain, which was larger than that ruled by the king of France. The same year she married the heir to the French throne, who became King Louis VII a month afterward. During their 15-year marriage, she exerted considerable influence upon the running of the country and even accompanied him on the Second Crusade from 1147 to 1149. His jealousy led to separation, and the marriage was annulled; but she regained possession of Aquitaine.

In 1152 she married Henry Plantagenet, who became Henry II of England two years later. Together they had eight children, among whom were Richard I the Lion-Hearted and John, both of whom later became kings of England. This union brought together England, Aquitaine, Anjou, and Normandy under one rule. Two centuries later England's various French possessions became an underlying cause of the Hundred Years' War.

After the revolt of her sons against Henry II, Eleanor was kept in semi-confinement from 1174 to 1189, when Henry died. She then became active in affairs of state under her son Richard I and, after his death without an heir in 1199, under John. She worked for peace between France and England and helped preserve John's French domains. Eleanor died on April 1, 1204, in the monastery at Fontevrault in Anjou.

Then King Henry married Rosamond de Clifford. Rosamond was born about 1136 in Clifford Castle, Clifford, Herefordshire, England. She was the daughter of Walter de Clifford and Margaret de Toni. She died about 1176 in Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England .

They had the following children.

  M i
William Prince of ENGLAND 1, 2 was born on 17 Aug 1152 in Le Mans, France. He died in Apr 1156 in Wallingford Castle, Wallingford, Berkshire, England, United Kingdom. He was buried in Reading, Berkshire, England, United Kingdom.
  M ii
Prince Henry of ENGLAND the Young King [scrapbook] 1, 2 was born on 28 Mar 1155 in Bermandsey Palace, London, England, United Kingdom. He died on 11 Jun 1183 in Chcateau de Mortel, Turenne, Aquitaine, France. He was buried in Rouen, Normandie, France.

HENRY OF ENGLAND (styled “the Young King”) born at Bermondsey, Surrey 28 Feb. 1155, Duke of Normandy, Count of Anjou and Maine, crowned joint King of England 14 June 1170.  He married at Neubourg in Normandy 2 Nov. 1160 MARGARET (or MARGUERITE) OF FRANCE, 1st daughter of Louis VII le Jeune (or le Pieux), King of France, by his 2nd wife, Constance, daughter of Alfonso VIII, King of Castile and León.  They had one son, William, born 19 June 1177, died in a few days.  He was recrowned together with his queen in 1172.  He rebelled in 1173-74 and again in 1183.  HENRY OF ENGLAND, joint King of England (with his father), died at Château Martel in Touraine 11 June 1183, and was buried in Rouen Cathedral.  His widow, Margaret, married (2nd) shortly after 24 August 1186 (as his 4th wife) Bela III, King of Hungary, Dalmatia, Croatia, and Rama, son of Geza II, King of Hungary.  They had no issue.  Bela III, King of Hungary, died 23 April 1196, and was buried at Székesfehervar.  Following her husband Bela III's death, Margaret made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land.  She died at Acre shortly after 10 Sept. 1197.
  F iii
Matilda Princess of ENGLAND 1 was born in 1156 in London, Middlesex, England, United Kingdom. She was christened in Aldgate, London, Middlesex, England, United Kingdom. She died on 28 Jun 1189 in Brunswick, Germany. She was buried in St Blasius, Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany.

MAUD OF ENGLANDxe “Saxony, Heinrich, Duke of & Maud of England”xe “England, Maud of & Heinrich, Duke of Saxony & Bavaria”, born at London 1156.  She married at Minden 1 Feb. 1168 (as his 2nd wife) HEINRICH (nicknamed the Lion), Duke of Saxonyxe “Saxony” and Bavariaxe “Bavaria”, son and heir of Heinrich, Duke of Bavariaxe “Bavaria”, by Gertrude, daughter of Lothar III, Holy Roman Emperor.  They had four sons, Heinrich, Lothar, Otto IV [King of the Romansxe “Romans”, Count of Poitouxe “Poitou”], and Wilhelm [Count of Lüneburgxe “Lüneburg”], and two daughters, Maud (wife of Geoffrey III, Count of Perchexe “Perche”, and Enguerrand III, Count of Coucyxe “Coucy”) and Richza (wife of Waldemar II, King of Denmarkxe “Denmark”).  He was deprived of both Bavaria and Saxony in 1180 and spent his remaining years in exile at the court of his father-in-law, King Henry II, or at Danwarderode Castle in Brunswick.  In 1194 he was guaranteed possession of his Saxon allodial lands.  Maud died at Brunswick 28 June 1189.  Henry died 6 August 1195.  They were buried in the collegiate church of St. Blaise, now Brunswick Cathedral in Brunswick, Germany.  They are direct ancestors of House of Hanoverxe “Hanover”, the royal house of England from 1714 to 1901.
  M iv
Richard "Cæur de Lion" King of ENGLAND [scrapbook] 1, 2 was born 3 on 8 Sep 1157 in Oxford, England, United Kingdom. He died 4 on 6 Apr 1199 in Castle of Chalus, Limosin, France. He was buried 5 in Fontevraud, Maine-et-Loire, France.


Henry's elder son, Richard I (reigned 1189-99), fulfilled his main ambition by going on crusade in 1190, leaving the ruling of England to others. After his victories over Saladin at the siege of Acre and the battles of Arsuf and Jaffa, concluded by the treaty of Jaffa (1192), Richard was returning from the Holy Land when he was captured in Austria. In early 1193, Richard was transferred to Emperor Henry VI's custody.

In Richard's absence, King Philip of France failed to obtain Richard's French possessions through invasion or negotiation. In England, Richard's brother John occupied Windsor Castle and prepared an invasion of England by Flemish mercenaries, accompanied by armed uprisings. Their mother, Queen Eleanor, took firm action against John by strengthening garrisons and again exacting oaths of allegiance to the king. John's subversive activities were ended by the payment of a crushing ransom of 150,000 marks of silver to the emperor, for Richard's release in 1194. Warned by Philip's famous message 'look to yourself, the devil is loosed', John fled to the French court.

On his return to England, Richard was recrowned at Winchester in 1194. Five years later he died in France during a minor siege against a rebellious baron. By the time of his death, Richard had recovered all his lands. His success was short-lived. In 1199 his brother John became king and Philip successfully invaded Normandy. By 1203, John had retreated to England, losing his French lands of Normandy and Anjou by 1205.

DEATH: Slain by an arrow
  M v
Geoffrey Prince of ENGLAND 1, 2 was born on 23 Sep 1158 in England, United Kingdom. He died on 19 Aug 1186 in Paris, France. He was buried in Notre Dame, Paris, , France.

GEOFFREY OF ENGLAND, 4th son, born 23 Sept. 1158, in right of his wife, Duke of Brittanyxe “Brittany” and Earl of Richmondxe “Richmond”.  He married about July 1181 by dispensation (they being related in the 3rd and 4th degrees of kindred) CONSTANCE OF BRITTANYxe “England, Geoffrey of & Constance of Brittany”xe “Brittany, Constance of & Geoffrey of England”, daughter and heiress of Conan IV le Petit, Duke of Brittanyxe “Brittany”, Earl of Richmondxe “Richmond”, by Margaret, daughter of Henry of Scotlandxe “Scotland”, Earl of Northumberlandxe “Northumberland”.  She was born about 1161.  They had three children (see below).  In 1184 they founded a chaplaincy in Rouen Cathedral for the soul of his late brother, Henry.  In 1185 they issued an assize regulating the succession of lands in Brittany.  GEOFFREY, Duke of Brittanyxe “Brittany”, Earl of Richmondxe “Richmond”, was killed in a tournament at Paris 19 August 1186, and was buried there in the quire of Nôtre Dame Cathedral.  His widow, Constance, married (2nd) 3 Feb. 1188 (or 1189) (as his 1st wife) RANULPH III, Earl of Chesterxe “Chester, Ranulph III, Earl of”, and, in right of his wife, Duke of Brittanyxe “Brittany” and Earl of Richmondxe “Richmond”, which marriage was annulled in 1199, presumably on grounds on consanguinity.  They had no issue.  She married (3rd) before Oct. 1199 (as his 1st wife) Guy de Thouars XE “Thouars, Guy de & Constance of Brittany”  XE “Brittany, Constance of & Guy de Thouars” , in right of his 1st wife, Duke of Brittanyxe “Brittany”, Earl of Richmond, younger son of Geoffroi IV, Vicomte of Thouars.  They had two daughters, Alice (wife of Pierre de Brainexe “Braine” (nicknamed Mauclerc), Knt., Duke of Brittanyxe “Brittany”, Earl of Richmondxe “Richmond”) and Katherine (wife of André III de Vitréxe “Vitré”, seigneur of Vitré).  Constance, Duchess of Brittanyxe “Brittany”, died testate at Nantes 4 (or 5) Sept. 1201, and was eventually buried at Villeneuve.  Guy de Thouars served as regent of Brittany on behalf of his daughter, Alice, from 1203 to 1213.  He married (2nd) Eustache de Mauléonxe “Mauléon”, widow of Guillaume V, Vicomte of Aunay XE “Aunay” , and daughter of Pierre d'Argenton XE “Argenton” .  They had two sons, Pierre [seigneur of Chemillé, Mortagne, and Brissac] and Thomas.  In Oct. 1203 Guy was granted the castles of Chemillé and Brissac by King Philippe Auguste of France XE “France, Philippe Auguste, King of” .  In 1204 he led the Breton invasion of southern Normandy.  He died at Chemillé 13 April 1213, and was eventually buried at Villeneuve.  His widow, Eustache, married (3rd) Renaud de Maulèvrier XE “Maulèvrier” .  She was living in 1244.
  M vi
Philip Prince of ENGLAND 1 was born about 1160 in of, , England, United Kingdom. He died in BET 1160 AND 1162.
  F vii Eleanor Princess of ENGLAND was born on 13 Oct 1162. She died on 25 Oct 1214.
  F viii
Joanna Princess of ENGLAND 1 was born in Oct 1164/1165 in Angers, Pays de la Loire, France. She died on 4 Sep 1199 in Rouen, Normandie, France. She was buried in Fontevrault-l'Abbaye, Pays de la Loire, France.

JOAN (or JEANNE) OF ENGLANDxe “England, Joan of & William II, King of Sicily”xe “Sicily, William II, King of & Joan of England”, born at Angers Oct. 1165.  She married (1st) at Palermo 13 Feb. 1177 WILLIAM (or GUGLIELMO) II le Bon, King of Sicilyxe “Sicily”, Duke of Apuliaxe “Apulia”, Prince of Capuaxe “Capua”, son of William I, King of Sicilyxe “Sicily”, Duke of Apuliaxe “Apulia”, by Margaret, daughter of García VI Ramirezxe “Ramirez”, King of Navarrexe “Navarre”.  They had one son, Bohemond [Duke of Apuliaxe “Apulia”].  WILLIAM II, King of Sicilyxe “Sicily”, died at Palermo 18 Nov. 1189.  His widow, Joan, married (2nd) at Rouen, Normandy Oct. 1196 (as his 4th wife) RAYMOND VI XE “Toulouse, Raymond VI, Count of & Joan of England”  XE “England, Joan of & Raymond VI, Count of Toulouse” , Duke of Narbonnexe “Narbonne”, Count of Toulouse, Marquis of Provencexe “Provence”, son of Raymond V, Count of Toulousexe “Toulouse”, Duke of Narbonne, Marquis of Provence, by [Queen] Constance, Countess of St. Gilles, daughter of Louis VI, King of Francexe “France”.  They had one son, Raymond VII [Count of Toulousexe “Toulouse”, Marquis of Provencexe “Provence”], and one child who died at birth.  JOAN, Queen of Sicilyxe “Sicily”, Duchess of Narbonnexe “Narbonne”, etc., died testate at Rouen 24 Sept. 1199.  RAYMOND VI, Duke of Narbonnexe “Narbonne”, Count of Toulouse, etc., died testate 2 August 1222.  No living descendants.
  M ix John Lackland PLANTAGENET King of England was born on 24 Dec 1166. He died on 19 Oct 1216.

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