Ancestors of Tim Farr and The Descendants of Stephen Farr


Eudes (Odo), Count of ORLEANS 1 was born about 800 in Orleans, Loiret, France. Eudes married Ingeltrude, Countess of ORLEANS.

Ingeltrude, Countess of ORLEANS 1 was born about 805 in of, Orleans, Loiret, France. Ingeltrude, married Eudes (Odo), Count of ORLEANS.

They had the following children.

  F i Ermentrude (Irmtrud) Countess of ORLEANS was born on 27 Sep 830. She died on 6 Oct 869.

Guelph I (Welf I) Duke of BAVARIA 1 was born about 776 in of, Altdorf, , Bavaria. He died about 830. Guelph married Hedwig Duchess of BAVARIA.

Hedwig Duchess of BAVARIA 1 was born about 780 in of, Bavaria. Hedwig married Guelph I (Welf I) Duke of BAVARIA.

They had the following children.

  F i
Emma Princess of BAVARIA 1 was born about 810 in of, Altdorf, , Bavaria. She died on 31 Jan 876 in Careme, Saxony.
  F ii Judith Princess of BAVARIA was born about 800. She died on 19 Apr 843.

Pbepin III "The Short" King of FRANCE [Parents] 1, 2, 3, 4 was born 5 in 715 in Austrasia, France. He died 6 on 24 Sep 768 in St Denis, France. Pbepin married Berthe (Bertrade) Countess of LOAN about 740.

PEPIN THE SHORT STRENGTHENS THE PAPAL POWER
Mann, Horace K.

By Horace K. Mann

That the Pope should write in the person of St. Peter is not in the least extraordinary, when it is considered, on the one hand, that Pepin had always before his mind that the Pope did occupy the place of St. Peter, for he ever spoke of helping "St. Peter" and giving thee xarchate to "St. Peter"; and on the other, that the Pope himself believed, as most Christians have at all times believed, that he was the successor of St. Peter; was, as such, the Rock on which the Church of Christ was founded, and consequently had a supreme right to speak in St. Peter's name.  Nor is there, in the domain of fact, the least reason for believing that either Pepin or the Pope regarded this impersonation of St. Peter as anything more than a specially earnestand solemn mode of writing.  To such as look at this letter with the eyes neither of Pepin nor the Pope, but with non-Catholic and nineteenth century ideas, not modified by a few grains of commonsense, it may doubtless appear sufficiently awful.

The superscription of the letter is as follows: "Peter, called to apostleship by Jesus Christ , the Son of the living God, ... and through me, the whole Catholic and Apostolic Roman Church of God, ...and Stephen the head of that same Church ... to the most excellent men Pepin, Charles and Carlomann, and to all the clergy and people of the Franks."

The letter of the Pope must have had a prompt effect on Pepin.  For,as we are told by the Liber Pontificalis that the siege of Rome lasted three months, and that Astolphus broke it up to resist Pepin in the north, we may conclude that the Frankish monarch forced the passes of the Alps for a second time about the month of April, 756.  While Pepin was thus engaged, an embassy reached him from the Emperor at Constantinople.  Offering him presents from the Emperor, and promising him more, the imperial secretary implored Pepin to hand over thee xarchate again into his master's hands.  In vain.  Pepin declared stoutly that he would not on any account alienate it from the power of Blessed Peter and the jurisdiction of the Roman Church and the Apostolic See.  Then on his oath he added: "It is not to please man that I have so often engaged in battle.  It is only for love of Blessed Peter, and to obtain pardon for my sins.  No amount of treasure can move me to take back what I have once offered to Blessed Peter."

Pepin then pushed on to Pavia, and began the siege of it at once.  In the autumn Astolphus was again at Pepin's feet.  This time he did not escape so easily.  He had to pay a war indemnity, become tributary to the Frankish king, acknowledging his dependence by an annual payment, and to fulfil with regard to the Pope what he had promised in the former treaty; and, as a further punishment for his perfidy, he had to surrender to the Pope the city of Comiaclum (Comacchio) in addition.

As what follows is of considerable importance in connection with the temporal power of the Holy See, we will give it almost "verbatim" in the words of the Liber Pontificalis: "He (Astolphus) drew up in writing a donation of all the cities (which he had to surrender) to be kept for ever by Blessed Peter, the Holy Roman Church and the Pontiffs of the Apostolic See, which deed is still preserved in the archives of our Holy Church. To take possession of the said cities, the most Christian king of the Franks sent his counsellor, the venerable abbot and priest, Fulrad, and himself returned to France.  In company with envoys from Astolphus, Fulrad went through the Pentapolis and Aemilia, took formal possession of the various cities, and with the keys and hostages from each place, he reached Rome. There, on the confession of St. Peter, he de posited the keys of Ravenna and the other cities of the exarchate, along with Astolphus' donation.  And to the same apostle and his vicar, and all his successors to be for ever possessed and ordered by them, he handed over the following cities. ..."

The Pope was thus made undisputed sovereign not only of the "duchy of Rome," over which he had ruled with rapidly increasing power from the Iconoclast disturbances in the times of Gregory II, but also of the"exarchate."  The authority, which the voluntary action of its inhabitants, in the first days of the "image-breaking" troubles, had given to the Pope in the exarchate, and which supplies us with the reason why all the deeds and histories of this period speak of the"donations" of Pepin and Astolphus as "restitutions," had now, by the valour and generosity of Pepin, and the "indifference of New Rome, "developed into full sovereignty.

Stephen at once took possession of the exarchate.  Sergius, the archbishop of Ravenna, was naturally named the Pope's representative in the exarchate, as the most important and powerful resident in that locality.  But the inferior officers, or at least many of them, were sent out from Rome. There cannot, therefore, be any doubt that henceforth the Pope is the real lord of the exarchate.

Copyright © 1994 Bureau of Electronic Publishing

Berthe (Bertrade) Countess of LOAN [Parents] [scrapbook] 1, 2 was born about 720 in Laon, Austrasia. She died 3 on 12 Jul 783 in Choisy, Bourgogne, France. She was buried in St Denis, France. Berthe married Pbepin III "The Short" King of FRANCE about 740.

They had the following children.

  F i
Ade Princess of The FRANKS 1 was born in 759 in of, Aachen, Rhineland, Prussia. She died on 12 May.
  M ii
Carloman, King of BURGUNDY 1 was born about 751 in of, Aachen, Rhineland, Prussia. He died on 4 Dec 771 in Samoussy, Austrasia, France. He was buried in Abbaye De St Rbemy, Reims, Neustria.
  F iii
Rothaide Princess of FRANCE 1 was born about 744 in of, Aachen, Rhineland, Prussia. She died in Austrasia, France. She was buried in St Arnoul Abbey, Metz, Moselle, France.
  F iv
Adbelahide Princess of FRANCE 1 was born about 746 in of, Aachen, , Prussia. She was buried in Abbaye De St Arnoul, Metz, Austrasia.
  M v Charlemagne Emperor of The HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE was born on 2 Apr 742. He died on 28 Jan 814.
  F vi
Gertrude Princess of The FRANKS 1 was born about 748 in of, Aachen, Rhineland, Prussia.
  M vii
Pepin Prince of The FRANKS 1 was born in 758 in of, Aachen, Rhineland, Prussia. He died in 762.
  F viii
Gisele Princess of FRANCE 1 was born in 757 in of, Aachen, Rhineland, Prussia. She died in 811.

Charlemagne Emperor of The HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE [Parents] [scrapbook] 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 was born 6, 7 on 2 Apr 742 in Aix La Chapelle, Austrasia. He was christened in St Denis, France. He died 8, 9, 10 on 28 Jan 814 in Aix La Chapelle, Austrasia. He was buried in Notre Dame D'aix La Chapelle, , Austrasia. Charlemagne married 11 Hildegard Empress of The HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE about 771 in Aachen, Rhineland, Prussia.

Historical Figures Gallery
Bio for Charlemagne

Charlemagne, or Charles the Great, was the son of a Frankish King. After inheriting his father's throne, Charlemagne was converted to Christianity. Encouraged by the Pope to spread his religion, he began a series of military conquests which were to lead to the formation the Holy Roman Empire.    Charlemagne's father was Pepin III, a King ofthe Franks, who was also known as Pepin the Short.  When Peppin died in 768, his kingdom was inherited jointly by his two sons.  However, Charlemagne's brother, Carloman, died just three years later, leaving Charlemagne the sole ruler.    Shortly afterward, Charlemagne began an extended military campaign designed to conquer neighboring territories and to convert them to Christianity. These were waged against the Saxons to the north (from 772 to 777) and the Lombards to the south (in 773).  In 778 , Charlemagne began a drive into Spain to conquer the Moors, but he withdrew when some of the German tribes hehad recently overcome revolted.    Charlemagne spent the next seven years quelling various uprisings which finally ended with the surrender and baptism of the Saxon's Chief.  Charlemagne there upon resumed his efforts at conquest and was able to subdue Bohemia, portions of northern Spain, and the Kingdom of the Avars (now Hungary). It was at this point that Pope Leo III asked Charlemagne to subdue an uprising of the Roman tribes.  To reward Charlemagne for his success, the Pope crowned him Emperor Carolus Augustus in 800.    To consolidate his rule, Charlemagne established a capital at Aachen (now Aix-la-Chapelle in France). In addition to a palace, he built a large university, and spent the remainder of his reign promoting education and the arts. He also established a stable government and initiated good relations with other countries.  However, his efforts to establish a government based on Christian principles did not survive much beyond his death since his sons were unable to maintain his authority, and the empire soon disintegrated.

Major Events

771 - King of the Franks.
773 - King of Lombardy.
777 - Defeated the Saxons.
782 - Saxon rebellion.
788 - Overthrew the King of Bohemia.
796 - Subjugated the Avars.
800 - Became the Holy Roman Emperor.

Did you know?

Charlemagne's coronation was held on Christmas Day in St. Peter's Basilica.

Copyright © 1994 Bureau of Electronic Publishing

Hildegard Empress of The HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE [Parents] 1, 2, 3 was born 4 about 758 in of, Aachen, Rhineland, Prussia. She died 5 on 30 Apr 783 in Thionville, Austrasia. She was buried in Abbaye De St Arnoul, Metz, Austrasia. Hildegard married 6 Charlemagne Emperor of The HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE about 771 in Aachen, Rhineland, Prussia.

They had the following children.

  M i
Charles Emperor of The HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE 1 was born in 772 in of, Aachen, Rhineland, Prussia. He died on 4 Dec 811.
  M ii Pbepin (Carloman) King of ITALY was born in Apr 773. He died on 8 Jul 810.
  F iii
Adbelahide(Adelheid) Princess of The HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE 1 was born in 774 in of, Pavie, Lombardy, Italy. She died in Aug 774.
  F iv
Rotrude Princess of The HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE 1 was born in Aug 774 in of, Aachen, Rhineland, Prussia. She died on 6 Jun 810.
  F v
Gisaele Princess of HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE 1 was born in 781 in Milano, Lombardy, Italy.
  F vi
Bertha Princess of The HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE 1 was born in 775 in of, Aachen, Rhineland, Prussia. She died on 11 Mar 826.
  M vii Louis I "The Pious" Emperor of The HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE was born in Aug 768. He died on 20 Jun 840.
  M viii
Lothaire Prince of HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE 1 was born in Aug 778 in Casseneuil, Lot-Et-Garonne, France. He died in Aug 778.
  F ix
Hildegarde Princess of HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE 1 was born in 782 in of, Aachen, Rhineland, Prussia. She died on 9 Jun 783.

Gerold I Count of VINZGAU 1, 2 was born in 710 in of, Aachen, Rhineland, Prussia. Gerold married Imma Duchess of SWABIA.

Imma Duchess of SWABIA 1, 2 was born about 736 in of, Aachen, Rhineland, Prussia. Imma married Gerold I Count of VINZGAU.

They had the following children.

  F i Hildegard Empress of The HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE was born about 758. She died on 30 Apr 783.

Pbepin (Carloman) King of ITALY [Parents] 1, 2, 3 was born in Apr 773 in of Aachen, Rhineland, Prussia. He was christened on 12 Apr 781 in Rome, Italy. He died on 8 Jul 810 in Provincia di Milano, Italy. Pbepin married Mrs Pbepin, Queen of ITALY about 795.

Mrs Pbepin, Queen of ITALY [Parents] 1 was born about 777 in of, Toulouse, Gascony. Mrs married Pbepin (Carloman) King of ITALY about 795.

They had the following children.

  M i Bernard King of ITALY was born in 797. He died on 17 Apr 818.
  F ii
Adbelahide (Adelheid) Princess of ITALY 1 was born about 798 in of, , Aix-La-Chapelle, Austrasia.
  F iii
Adaele (Atala) Princess of ITALY 1 was born about 799 in of, , Aix-La-Chapelle, Austrasia.
  F iv
Gundrade (Gundrada) Princess of ITALY 1 was born about 801 in of, , Aix-La-Chapelle, Austrasia.
  F v
Bertraide (Berthais) Princess of ITALY 1 was born about 803 in of, , Aix-La-Chapelle, Austrasia.
  F vi
Thbeodrate(Tetrada) Princess of ITALY 1 was born about 805 in of, , Aix-La-Chapelle, Austrasia.

Louis I "The Pious" Emperor of The HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE [Parents] 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 was born 6 in Aug 768 in Casseneuil, Lot-Et-Garonne, France. He died 7, 8 on 20 Jun 840 in Near, Ingelheim, Rhinehessen, Hesse. He was buried in Cathbedrale D'aachen, Aachen, Rheinland, Prussia. Louis married 9 Ermengarde of The HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE Countess of Hesbaye in 794 in France.

Other marriages:
BAVARIA, Judith Princess of

Ermengarde of The HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE Countess of Hesbaye 1 was born in of Hesbaye, Liege, Belgium. She died 2 on 3 Oct 818 in Angers, Maine-et-Loire, France. Ermengarde married 3 Louis I "The Pious" Emperor of The HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE in 794 in France.

They had the following children.

  M i Lothair Emperor of The HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE was born in 795. He died on 29 Sep 855.
  F ii Adbelahide (Adelheid) Princess of The HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE was born about 824. She died in 866.

Charles "Martel" Mayor of The Palace of AUSTRASIA [Parents] 1, 2, 3 was born 4 in 676 in of, Heristal, , Neustria. He died on 15 Oct 741 in Cressy Sur Oise, Neustria, France. He was buried in Monastaere De Saint Denis, Saint Denis, France. Charles married Rotrude (Chrotude) Duchess of AUSTRASIA.

PEPIN THE SHORT STRENGTHENS THE PAPAL POWER
Guizot, Francois P. G.

By Francois P. G. Guizot

751 - 756
The Merovingians, the first dynasty of the Frankish kings in Gaul was founded by the greatest of their kings, Clovis, who in 486 overthrew the Gallo-Roman sway under Syagrius, near Soiss ons.  After his death in 511 his kingdom was divided among four sons who were mere boys ranging from twelve to eighteen years of age.  The last survivor of the brother-kings was Clotaire I .  Under his rule the whole Frankish empire had been united in one; but on his decease it was again divided among sons.  Power slipped fast from the feeble representatives of the Meroving ian race, and the mayor of the palace (major-domus) began to exercise an authority which in time resulted in supremacy.  When Pepin of Heristal, the greatest territorial lord of Austrasia , took upon himself the office of major-domus, he compelled the Merovingian King, at the battle of Testry in 687, to invest him with the powers of that office in all the Frankish states .  This being accomplished Pepin was practically dictator, and the Merovingians, though allowed to remain on the throne, were simply figure-heads from that time forth.

Pepin of Heristal was succeeded by his mighty son Charles Martel, who won the great victory of Tours.  Then came the son of Charles, another Pepin, called Pepin the Short.  This notable member of a noted race removed the puppet kings from the throne and founded the celebrated dynasty of Charlemagne.  Pepin the Short also extended and consolidated the Frankish empire, and by his alliance with the Roman Popes vastly increased their power.  He strengthened, if he did not found, the temporal kingdom of the popes.  The divergence of views upon this point makes it necessary to supplement Guizot with a Roman Catholic account.

Charles Martel died October 22, 741, at Kiersey-sur-Oise, aged fifty-two years, and his last act was the least wise of his life.  He had spent it entirely in two great works: the reestablishment throughout the whole of Gaul of the Franco-Gallo-Roman Empire, and the driving back, from the frontiers of his empire, of the Germans in the North and the Arabs in the South.  The consequence, as also the condition, of this double success was the victory of Christianity over paganism and Islamism.

Charles Martel endangered these results by falling back into the groove of those Merovingian kings whose shadow he had allowed to remain on the throne.  He divided between his two legitimate sons, Pepin, called the Short, from his small stature, and Carloman, this sole dominion which he had with so much toil reconstituted and defended.  Pepin had Neustria, Burgundy, Provence , and the suzerainty of Aquitaine; Carloman, Austrasia, Thuringia, and Alemannia.  They both, at their father's death, took only the title of mayor of the palace, and, perhaps, of duke.  The last but one of the Merovingians, Thierry IV, had died in 737.  For four years there had been no king at all.

But when the works of men are wise and true, that is, in conformity with the lasting wants of peoples and the natural tendency of social facts, they get over even the mistakes of their authors.  Immediately after the death of Charles Martel, the consequences of dividing his empire became manifest.  In the North, the Saxons, the Bavarians, and the Alamannians renewed their insurrections.  In the South, the Arabs of Septimania recovered their hopes of effecting an invasion; and Hunald, duke of Aquitaine, who had succeeded his father Eudes after his death i n 735, made a fresh attempt to break away from Frankish sovereignty and win his independence.  Charles Martel had left a young son, Grippo, whose legitimacy had been disputed, but who was not slow to set up pretensions and to commence intriguing against his brothers.

Everywhere there burst out that reactionary movement which arises against grand and difficult works when the strong hand that undertook them is no longer by to maintain them; but this movement was of short duration and to little purpose.  Brought up in the school and in the fear of their father, his two sons, Pepin and Carloman, were inoculated with his ideas and example ; they remained united in spite of the division of dominions, and labored together, successfully, to keep down, in the North the Saxons and Bavarians, in the South the Arabs and Aquitanians, supplying want of unity by union, and pursuing with one accord the constant aim of Charles Martel - abroad the security and grandeur of the Frankish dominion, at home the cohesion of all its parts and the efficacy of its government.

Events came to the aid of this wise conduct.  Five years after the death of Charles Martel, in 746 in fact, Carloman, already weary of the burden of power, and seized with a fit of religious zeal, abdicated his share of sovereignty, left his dominions to his brother Pepin, had himself shorn by the hands of Pope Zachary, and withdrew into Italy to the monastery of Monte Cassino.  The preceding year, in 745, Hunald, duke of Aquitaine, with more patriotic and equally pious views, also abdicated in favor of his son Waifre, whom he thought more capable than himself of winning the independence of Aquitaine, and went and shut himself up in a monastery in the island of Rhe, where was the tomb of his father Eudes.  In the course of divers attempts at conspiracy and insurrection, the Frankish princes' young brother, Grippo, was killed in combat while crossing the Alps.  The furious internal dissensions among the Arabs of Spain, and the irincessant wars with the Berbers, did not allow them to pursue any great enterprise in Gaul.  Thanks to all these circumstances, Pepin found himself, in 747, sole master of the heritage of Clovis, and with the sole charge of pursuing, in state and church, his father's work, which was the unity and grandeur of Christian France.

Pepin, less enterprising than his father, but judicious, persevering, and capable of discerning what was at the same time necessary and possible, was well fitted to continue and consolidat e what he would, probably, never have begun and created.  Like his father, he, on arriving at power, showed pretensions to moderation or, it might be said, modesty.  He did not take the title of king; and, in concert with his brother Carloman, he went to seek, heaven knows in what obscure asylum, a forgotten Merovingian, son of Childeric II, the last but one of the sluggard kings, and made him king, the last of his line, with the title of Childeric III, himself, as well as his brother, taking only the style of mayor of the palace.  But at the end of ten years, and when he saw himself alone at the head of the Frankish dominion, Pepin considered the moment arrived for putting an end to this fiction.  In 751 he sent to Pope Zachary at Rome Burchard, bishop of Wuerzburg, and Fulrad, abbot of St. Denis, "to consult the pontiff," says Eginhard, "on the subject of the kings then existing among the Franks, and who bore only the name of king without enjoying a tittle of royal authority."

The Pope, whom St. Boniface, the great missionary of Germany, had prepared for the question, answered that "it was better to give the title of king to him who exercised the sovereign power"; and next year, in March, 752, in the presence and with the assent of the general assembly of "leudes" and bishops gathered together at Soissons, Pepin was proclaimed king of the Franks , and received from the hand of St. Boniface the sacred anointment. They cut off the hair of the last Merovingian phantom, Childeric III, and put him away in the monastery of St. Sithiu, at St. Omer. Two years later, July 28, 754, Pope Stephen II, having come to France to claim Pepin's support against the Lombards, after receiving from him assurance of it, "anointed him afresh with the holy oil in the church of St. Denis, to do honor in his person to the dignity of royalty," and conferred the same honor on the king's two sons, Charles and Carloman.  The new Gallo-Frankish kingship and the papacy, in the name of their commonfaith and common interests, thus contracted an intimate alliance.  The young Charles was hereafter to become Charlemagne.

The same year, Boniface, whom six years before Pope Zachary had made archbishop of Mayence, gave up one day the episcopal dignity to his disciple Lullus, charging him to carry on the different works himself had commenced among the churches of Germany, and to uphold the faith of the people.  "As for me," he added, "I will put myself on my road, for the time of my passing away approacheth.  I have longed for this departure, and none can turn me from it; wherefore, my son, get all things ready, and place in the chest with my books the winding-sheet to wrap up my old body."  And so he departed with some of his priest sand servants to go and evangelize the Frisons, the majority of whom were still pagans and barbarians.  He pitched his tent on their territory, and was arranging to celebrate their Lord's supper, when a band of natives came down and rushed upon the archbishop's retinue .The servitors surrounded him, to defend him and themselves, and a battle began.

"Hold, hold, my children!" cried the archbishop; "Scripture biddeth us return good for evil .  This is the day I have long desired, and the hour of our deliverance is at hand.  Be strong in the Lord: hope in him, and he will save your souls."  The barbarians slew the holy man and the majority of his company.  A little while after, the Christians of the neighborhood came in arms and recovered the body of St. Boniface.  Near him was a book which was stained with blood and seemed to have dropped from his hands; it contained several works of the fathers, and among others a writing of St. Ambrose, On the Blessing of Death.  The death of the pious missionary was as powerful as his preaching in converting Friesland.  It was a mode of conquest worthy of the Christian faith, and one of which the history of Christianity had already proved the effectiveness.

St. Boniface did not confine himself to the evangelization of the pagans; he labored ardently in the Christian Gallo-Frankish Church to reform the manners and ecclesiastical discipline, and to assure, while justifying, the moral influence of the clergy by example as well asprecept.  The councils, which had almost fallen into desuetude in Gaul, became once more frequent and active there: from 742 to 753 there may be counted seven, presided over by St. Boniface, which exercised within the Church a salutary action.  King Pepin, recognizing the services which the archbishop of Mayence had rendered him, seconded his reformatory efforts at one time by giving the support of his royal authority to the canons of the councils, held often simultaneously with and almost confounded with the laic assemblies of the Franks; at another by doing justice to the protests of the churches against the violence and spoliation to which they were subjected.


"There was an important point," says M. Fauriel, "in respect of which the position of Charle s Martel's sons turned out to be pretty nearly the same as that of their father: it was touchi ng the necessity of assigning warriors a portion of the ecclesiastical revenues.  But they, bei ng more religious, perhaps, than Charles Martel, or more impressed with the importance of humo ring the priestly power, were more vexed and more anxious about the necessity under which the y found themselves of continuing to despoil the churches and of persisting in a system which wa s putting the finishing stroke to the ruin of all ecclesiastical discipline.  They were more e ager to mitigate the evil and to offer the Church compensation for their share in this evil to which it was not in their power to put a stop. Accordingly, at the March parade, held at Lept ines in 743, it was decided, in reference to ecclesiastical lands applied to the military serv ice: Ist, that the churches having the ownership of those lands should share the revenue with the lay holder; 2d, that on the death of a warrior in enjoyment of an ecclesiastical benefice , the benefice should revert to the Church; 3d, that every benefice, by deprivation whereof any church would be reduced to poverty, should be at once restored to her.

"That this capitular was carried out, or even capable of being carried out, is very doubtful ; but the less Carloman and Pepin succeeded in repairing the material losses incurred by the Church since the accession of the Carlovingians, the more zealous they were in promoting the growth of her moral power and the restoration of her discipline....  That was the time at which there began to be seen the spectacle of the national assemblies of the Franks, the gatherings at the March parades transformed into ecclesiastical synods under the presidency of the titular legate of the Roman pontiff, and dictating, by the mouth of the political authority, regulations and laws with the direct and formal aim of restoring divine worship and ecclesiastical discipline, and of assuring the spiritual welfare of the people."

Pepin, after he had been proclaimed king and had settled matters with the Church as well as the warlike questions remaining for him to solve permitted, directed all his efforts toward the two countries which, after his father's example, he longed to reunite to the Gallo-Frankish monarchy, that is Septimania, still occupied by the Arabs, and Aquitaine, the independence of which was stoutly and ably defended by Duke Eudes' grandson, Duke Waifre. The conquest of Septimania was rather tedious than difficult. The Franks, after having victoriously scoured the open country of the district, kept invested during three years its capital, Narbonne, where the Arabs of Spain, much weakened by their dissensions, vainly tried to throw in reinforcements. In 759, after forty years of Arab rule, Narbonne passed definitively under the Franks, who guaranteed to the inhabitants free enjoyment of their Gothic or Roman law and of their local institutions.  It even appears that, in the province of Spain bordering on Septimania, an Arab chief ,who was in command at Barcelona, submitted to Pepin.  This was an important event, indeed, for here was the point at which Islamism, but lately aggressive and victorious in Southern Europe, began to feel definitively beaten and to recoil before Christianity.

The conquest of Aquitaine and Vasconia was much more keenly disputed and for a much longer time uncertain.  It was only after nine years' war and seven campaigns full of vicissitudes that Pepin succeeded, not in conquering his enemy in a decisive battle, but in gaining over some servants who betrayed their master.  In the month of July, 759, "Duke Waifre was slain by his own folk, by the King's advice," says Fredegaire, and the conquest of all Southern Gaul carried the extent and power of the Gallo-Frankish monarchy farther and higher than it had ever yet been, even under Clovis.

Exactly at this epoch Pepin was engaging in a matter which did not allow him to scatter his forces hither and thither.  It has been stated already, that in 741 Pope Gregory III had asked aid of the Franks against the Lombards who were threatening Rome, and that, while fully entertaining the Pope's wishes, Charles Martel had been in no hurry to interfere by deed in the quarrel.  Twelve years later, in 753, Pope Stephen, in his turn threatened by Astolphus, King of the Lombards, after vain attempts to obtain guarantees of peace, repaired to Paris, and renewed to Pepin the entreaties used by Zachary.

Stephen passed the winter at St. Denis, and gained the favor of the people as well as that of the King.  Astolphus peremptorily refused to listen to the remonstrances of Pepin, who called upon him to evacuate the towns in the exarchate of Ravenna, and to leave the Pope unmolested in the environs of Rome as well as in Rome itself.  At the March parade held at Braine, in the spring of 754, the Franks approved of the war against the Lombards; and at the end of the summer Pepinand his army descended into Italy by Mount Cenis, the Lombards trying in vain to stop them as they debouched into the valley of Suza. Astolphus, beaten, and, before long, shut up in Pavia, promised all that was demanded of him; and Pepin and his warriors, laden with booty, returned to France, leaving at Rome the Pope, who conjured them to remain awhile in Italy, for to a certainty, he said, King Astolphus would not keep his promises. The Pope was right.  So soon as the Franks had gone, the King of the Lombards continued occupying the places in the exarchate and molesting the neighborhood of Rome.

The Pope, in despair and doubtful of his auxiliaries' return, conceived the idea of sending "to the King, the chiefs, and the people of the Franks, a letter written," he said, "by Peter, apostle of Jesus Christ, Son of the living God, to announce to them that, if they came in haste , he would aid them as if he were alive according to the flesh among them, that they would conquer all their enemies and make themselves sure of eternal life!"  The plan was perfectly successful: the Franks once more crossed the Alps with enthusiasm, and once more succeeded in beating the Lombards.  Pepin, regarding the disputed lands as his own direct conquest, the fruit of victory, disposed of them forthwith in favor of the popes, by that famous deed of gift which comprehended pretty nearly what has since formed the Roman States, and which founded the temporal independence of the papacy, the guarantee of its independence in the exercise of the spiritual power.

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Rotrude (Chrotude) Duchess of AUSTRASIA 1, 2 was born about 690 in of, (moselle), Austrasia. She died 3 about 724. Rotrude married Charles "Martel" Mayor of The Palace of AUSTRASIA.

They had the following children.

  M i Pbepin III "The Short" King of FRANCE was born in 715. He died on 24 Sep 768.
  F ii
Childtrude (Hiltrude) Duchess of BAVARIA 1 was born about 716 in Austrasia, France. She died about 754.
  M iii
Carloman Prince of FRANCE 1 was born about 713 in (moselle), Austrasia. He died on 17 Aug 755 in Cassino Monastery, Monte Cassino, Frosinone, Italy.

Claribert I (Heribert), Count of LOAN [scrapbook] 1, 2 was born 3 in BET 700 AND 705 in of, Laon, Aisne, France. He died 4 in 751. Claribert married Bertrada, Countess of LOAN in 719.

Bertrada, Countess of LOAN [scrapbook] 1 was born about 695 in of, Laon, Aisne, France. Bertrada, married Claribert I (Heribert), Count of LOAN in 719.

They had the following children.

  F i Berthe (Bertrade) Countess of LOAN was born about 720. She died on 12 Jul 783.

Pepin of HERISTAL [Parents] 1 was born about 640. He died on 16 Dec 714. Pepin married Aupais.

Aupais 1. Aupais married Pepin of HERISTAL.

They had the following children.

  M i Charles "Martel" Mayor of The Palace of AUSTRASIA was born in 676. He died on 15 Oct 741.

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